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Where was the hemp grown?

Pathways Their Myriad Phytochemicals: of Biological Activities and Production Hemp



  • Pathways Their Myriad Phytochemicals: of Biological Activities and Production Hemp
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  • Numerous chemicals are produced in hemp through the secondary. Hemp varieties producing oil, biomass or even both are currently cultivated and the availability of the hemp genome . Properties Hemp Phytochemicals: Their Production Pathways And Myriad Of Biological Activities Phytocannabinoids. Article (PDF Available) in Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 37(7) a better understanding of its myriad benefits. lifestyle factors including diet and aerobic activity affect the overall ECS . systems might produce converging effects on the same pathway, and Can phytochemicals affect function of.

    Pathways Their Myriad Phytochemicals: of Biological Activities and Production Hemp

    It is known that induction of enzymatic activity in early steps of a biosynthetic pathway precedes the accumulation of final products Fig. The cannabinoid content in female flowers from drug-type plants Skunk and Fourway varieties was five times higher than the flavonoid content, but in female flowers from fiber-type plants Kompolti variety it was only twice the amount Tables 1 , 2.

    During the development of the glandular trichomes on the flowers, the activity of the olivetol-forming PKS at day 29 was seven times higher than the CHS activity Fig. Although, STS activity detected during the time course was low, it increased at the end, being five and 18 higher than the CHS and olivetol-forming PKS activities, respectively. This STS activity can be associated with precursor formation in stilbenoid biosynthesis.

    Using the present approach, we believe that we have clear evidence for the presence of different PKS profiles in the different tissues; which are further supported by the phytochemical analyses of these tissues. The role of olivetol synthase in the plant needs further clarification.

    Its activity coincides with the occurrence of the cannabinoids. On the other hand, no activity of olivetolic acid synthase has been found in cannabis so far. This raises the question about whether the in planta activity of this enzyme could be different from its in vitro activity. Further studies are required to identify the substrate specificities of these individual PKS enzymes in cannabis plants. Purification and characterization of the PKS enzymes will be necessary to determine their catalytic potential and regulation, which may lead to the identification of their role in the plant.

    Proposed reactions for PKS enzymes in the biosynthesis of precursors from flavonoid, stilbenoid and cannabinoid pathways in cannabis plants. The dashed square represents the compound found in crude extracts. After 3 weeks, the small plants were transplanted into 10 liter pots for continued growth until flowering.

    Five day-old seedlings, young leaves from week-old plants, female flowers and bracts at different stages of development, and male flowers from 4-month-old plants were harvested. Three-month-old male plants were used for pollination of female plants. The fruits were harvested 18 d after pollination. Roots from 4-month-old female plants were harvested and washed with cold water to remove residual soil.

    Olivetolic acid was obtained from hydrolysis of methyl olivetolate Horper and Marner , and methyl olivetolate was a gift from Professor Dr.

    The flavonoids kaempferol, orientin and luteolin were purchased from Extrasynthese Genay, France , and vitexin, isovitexin and apigenin from Sigma-Aldrich Buchs, Switzerland. Quercetin, apigenin O -Glc and luteolin O -Glc were from our standard collection. All chemical products and mineral salts were of analytical grade. Frozen plant material was homogenized in a mortar with nitrogen liquid, the powder was thawed in polyvinylpolypyrrolidone PVPP and extraction buffer [0. Per each gram of fresh weight, 0.

    The crude protein extracts were desalted using Sephadex G M PD columns and eluted with the same extraction buffer without addition of leupeptin. VPS was isolated previously in our laboratory Paniego et al. Protein concentration was measured as described by Peterson with bovine serum albumin as standard.

    Calibration curves with the respective standards were made. Extraction was carried out as described by Choi et al. The mixtures were centrifuged in the cold at 3, r. H 2 O and CHCl 3 fractions were separated and evaporated. The extraction was performed twice. The extracts were resuspended on 1 ml of MeOH: The solvent system and the operational conditions were the same as previously reported by Hazekamp et al.

    Cannabinoids were detected at nm. Calibration curves with their respective standards were made. The solvent system and the operational conditions were as described by Justesen et al. The mobile phase consisted of MeOH: Retention times for aglycones were as follows: Flavones and flavonols were detected at their maximal UV absorbance quercetin, nm; kaempferol, The standards apigenin and vitexin were dissolved in MeOH: Hydrolysates were extracted with ethyl acetate three times.

    The organic phase was dried over anhydrous NaSO 4 and evaporated with N 2 gas. Fei for growing C. Garza-Ortiz for technical assistance with me-olivetolate hydrolysis. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Sign In or Create an Account.

    Close mobile search navigation Article navigation. Plants Isvett Josefina Flores-Sanchez. Abstract Polyketide synthase PKS enzymatic activities were analyzed in crude protein extracts from cannabis plant tissues.

    View large Download slide. Structure function analyses of benzalacetone synthase from Rheum palmatum. Gene induction of stilbene biosynthesis in Scot pine in response to ozone treatment, wounding and fungal infection.

    Metabolomic differentiation of Cannabis sativa cultivars using 1 H NMR spectroscopy and principal component analyses. Endocannabinoids and related compounds: Chemical constituents of marijuana: Chemical defense in Elodea nuttallii reduces feeding and growth of aquatic herbivorous Lepidoptera.

    Prenylation of olivetolate by a hemp transferase yields cannabigerolic acid, the precursor of tetrahydrocannabinol. Pentaketide resorcylic acid synthesis by type III polyketide synthase from Neurospora crassa. Induced formation of dihydrophenanthrenes and bibenzyl synthase upon destruction of orchid mycorrhiza.

    Chromatographic and spectroscopic data of cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa L. Preparative isolation of cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa by centrifugal partition chromatography. Constituents of Cannabis sativa L. Cannabidiol and cannabichromene in samples of known geographical origin. Purification and characterization of a ferulic acid decarboxylase from Pseudomonas fluorescens. Phytoalexins from the Vitaceae: Quantitative analyses of flavonols, flavones and flavanones in fruits, vegetables and beverages by high-performance liquid chromatography with photo-diode array and mass spectrometric detection.

    Biosynthesis of the hyperforin skeleton in Hypericum calycimun cell cultures. Resorcinolic lipids, the natural non-isoprenoid phenolic amphiphiles and their biological activity. Enzymatic synthesis of aromatic compounds in higher plants: Severe sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation in an Arabidopsis mutant deficient in flavonoid accumulation.

    Mechanisms of UV-resistance in Arabidopsis. Structure, development and composition of glandular trichomes of Cannabis sativa L. Purification and characterization of cannabichromenic acid synthase from Cannabis sativa.

    Identification and characterization of cannabinoids that induce cell death through mitochondrial permeability transition in Cannabis leaf cells. Studies on lichen enzymes. Preparation and properties of a depside hydrolyzing esterase and of orsellinic acid decarboxylase. Chalcone synthase homologues from Humulus lupulus: Bifunctional activities of valerophenone synthase in Hop Humulus lupulus L.

    Phlorisovalerophenone synthase, a novel polyketide synthase from hop Humulus lupulus L. A simplification of the protein assay method of Lowry et al. An orsellinic acid decarboxylase isolated from Gliocladium roseum.

    Metabolism of lunularic acid to a new plant stilbene by Lunularia cruciata. Lunularic acid decarboxylase from the liverwort Conocephalum conicum.

    Studies of cannabinoid biosynthesis in Cannabis sativa L.: Olivetol as product of a polyketide synthase in Cannabis sativa L. Cloning and over-expression of a cDNA encoding a polyketide synthase from Cannabis sativa. Molecular characterization of the incompatible interaction of Vitis vinifera leaves with Pseudomonas syringae pv. Storage of cannabinoids by Arctia caja and Zonocerus elegans fed on chemically distinct strains of Cannabis sativa.

    In vitro lethal efficacy of leaf extract of Cannabis sativa on the larvae of Chironomous samoensis Edward: The role of UV-B radiation in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems—an experimental and functional analyses of the evolution of UV-absorbing compounds.

    Stilbene synthases and stilbenecarboxylate synthases, I: Aromatic and pyrone polyketides synthesized by a stilbene synthase from Rheum tataricum. Purification and properties of a stilbene synthase from induced cell suspension cultures of peanut. Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase, the enzyme controlling marijuana psychoactivity, is secreted into the storage cavity of the glandular trichomes.

    Specificities of functionally expressed chalcone and acridone synthases from Ruta graveolens. Chemical syntheses and properties of hydroxycinnamoyl-coenzyme A derivatives. Decarboxylation of sorbic acid by spoilage yeasts is associated with the PAD1 gene.

    Cannabidiolic-acid synthase, the chemotype-determining enzyme in the fiber-type Cannabis sativa. Gland distribution and cannabinoid content in clones of Cannabis sativa L. Quantitative determination of cannabinoids in individual glandular trichomes of Cannabis sativa L. Interrelationships of glandular trichomes and cannabinoid content. Chemotaxonomic features associated with flavonoids of cannabinoid-free cannabis Cannabis sativa subsp.

    The structural requirements of flavonols that induce pollen germination of conditionally male fertile Petunia. Chalcone synthase from cell suspension cultures of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Flavonols and fertilization in Petunia hybrida: For permissions, please email: Email alerts New issue alert.

    Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic. Related articles in Web of Science Google Scholar. Citing articles via Web of Science Toxic effects of both extracts leaf and flower were more profound against Coptotermes heimi than Heterotermes indicola during these ten days of feeding. Also the seed extracts caused more mortality than the leaves for both species, suggesting the availability of high contents of toxic materials in seed.

    Molecular characterization of edestin gene family in Cannabis sativa L. Globulins are the predominant class of seed storage proteins in a wide variety of plants. In many plant species globulins are present in several isoforms encoded by gene families. The major seed storage protein of Cannabis sativa L. In this work, we report the isolation of seven cDNAs encoding for edestin from the C.

    Southern blot hybridization is in agreement with the number of identified edestin genes. The amino acid composition determined in CsEde1 and CsEde2 types suggests that these seed proteins can be used to improve the nutritional quality of plant food-stuffs. Medical uses of marijuana Cannabis sativa: Marijuana Cannabis sativa has been used throughout the world medically, recreationally and spiritually for thousands of years. In South Africa, from the midth century to the s, practitioners prescribed it for a multitude of conditions.

    In it was classified as a Schedule I substance, illegal, and without medical value. Ironically, with this prohibition, cannabis became the most widely used illicit recreational drug, not only in South Africa, but worldwide.

    Cannabis is generally regarded as enjoyable and relaxing without the addictive risks of opioids or stimulants. In alternative medicine circles it has never lost its appeal. To date 23 States in the USA have legalised its medical use despite the federal ban. Unfortunately, little about cannabis is not without controversy. This system's elucidation raises the possibility of many promising pharmaceutical applications, even as restrictions show no sign of abating. Recreational use of cannabis continues to increase, despite growing evidence of its addictive potential, particularly in the young.

    Public approval drives medical cannabis legalisation efforts without the scientific data normally required to justify a new medication's introduction. This review explores these controversies and whether cannabis is a panacea, a scourge, or both. Proline and phenolices were correlated with Cd contents in plant.

    Cd significantly reduced the plant growth. Fertilizers application in combination most significantly increased the growth 19 cm root and 47 cm shoot on Cd contaminated soil. All treatments increased the Cd contents in plant tissues.

    This increase was highly significant in fertilizers treated plants , and ppm in roots, stem and leaves respectively. All treatments significantly increased the proline and total phenolics and maximum was recorded in NaCl treated plants followed by fertilizers.

    Proline was higher in roots while phenolics in leaves. Proline and phenolics showed positive correlation with Cd concentration in plant. Conclusively, fertilizers in combination seem to be the better option for Cd phytoextraction. Further investigation is suggested to study the role of phenolics and proline in Cd phytoextraction. In many parts of the world, the possession and cultivation of Cannabis sativa L.

    As chemical or morphological analyses cannot identify the plant in some cases, a simple yet accurate DNA-based method for identifying C. We have developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification LAMP assay for the rapid identification of C. The detection limit was the same as or higher than that of conventional PCR. Using a simple protocol, the identification of C.

    A rapid, sensitive, highly specific, and convenient method for detecting and identifying C. Sensitization and allergy to Cannabis sativa leaves in a population of tomato Lycopersicon esculentum -sensitized patients. Cases of allergy to Cannabis sativa have occasionally been reported, but both the allergenic profile and eventual cross-reactivity pattern remain unknown.

    To analyze the allergenic profile of a population of patients from Spain sensitized to C. A total of 32 subjects were enrolled in the study: Sensitivity to Cannabis , tomato and peach peel, Platanus hybrida and Artemisia vulgaris pollen extracts was measured by skin tests and specific IgE.

    Individual immunoblots and inhibition experiments with a pool of sera were conducted. All tomato-sensitized subjects and 1 negative had positive skin tests to C. Specific IgE to C. Immunoblot experiments showed 2 prominent bands of 10 and 14 kDa and 2 weakly recognized bands of 30 and 45 kDa. Tomato, peach and A. Gene duplication and divergence affecting drug content in Cannabis sativa.

    Marijuana and hemp were crossed to evaluate competing models of cannabinoid inheritance and to explain the predominance of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid THCA in marijuana compared with cannabidiolic acid CBDA in hemp. Individuals in the resulting F2 population were assessed for differential expression of cannabinoid synthase genes and were used in linkage mapping. Genetic markers associated with divergent cannabinoid phenotypes were identified. Phylogenetic analysis further suggests a history of duplication and divergence affecting drug content.

    Marijuana is distinguished from hemp by a nonfunctional CBDA synthase that appears to have been positively selected to enhance psychoactivity. An unlinked QTL for cannabinoid quantity may also have played a role in the recent escalation of drug potency.

    Legal limits on the psychoactive tetrahydrocannabinol THC content in Cannabis sativa plants have complicated genetic and forensic studies in this species. However, Cannabis seeds present very low THC levels. We developed a method for embryo extraction from seeds and an improved protocol for DNA extraction and tested this method in four hemp and six marijuana varieties.

    This embryo extraction method enabled the recovery of diploid embryos from individual seeds. DNA extracted from embryos was used for SSR molecular characterization in individuals from the 10 varieties.

    A unique molecular profile for each individual was obtained, and a clear differentiation between hemp and marijuana varieties was observed. The combined embryo extraction-DNA extraction methodology and the new highly polymorphic SSR markers facilitate genetic and forensic studies in Cannabis.

    Two complete chloroplast genome sequences of Cannabis sativa varieties. In this study, we determined the complete chloroplast cp genomes from two varieties of Cannabis sativa. Further, except for the presence of an intron in the rps3 genes of two C. To verify the position of C. The resulting tree strongly supported monophyly of Rosales.

    Further, the family Cannabaceae, represented by C. The phylogenetic relationship outlined in our study is well congruent with those previously shown for the order Rosales. Full Text Available Introduction: Cannabis sativa is a plant that is Called Cannabis in Persian and has diversity all over the world.

    This plant grows in North region, Arak and Kashan in Iran. Chemical compounds of this plant are cannabidiol, cannabidiolic acid and tetra hydro cannabinol that cause the increase in duration of anesthesia via injection of anesthesia drugs.

    This effect shows the effectiveness of this plant extraction for sedation and smoothing. It is claimed that the usage of this drug for preanesthesia causes the reduction of anesthesia duration induction and increases anesthesia persistency.

    It seems that Cannabis and its compounds have effects on sleep through hypothalamus and posterior nucleus hemisphere. The results showed a meaningful increase in the period of the sleep time that had been induced with Ketamine and also a meaningful increase was observed in the time spent at open arms in the treatment groups with high and low dose of extract. Full Text Available Cannabis is the most frequently used drug of abuse not only in Pakistan but also in the whole world. Its use is increasing drastically every year.

    GCMS allows for the analysis of Cannabis sativa which shows the differences of the constituents of this plant. Prevalence of this plant can be identified through knowledge of its constituents. In this way we can obstruct the production if we know the region in which it is produced. GCMS is a useful technique for the comparison of constituents of this drug of abuse which will assist the investigator concerning the origin of plant. Comparison also aids in the understanding and acquaintance of similarities of different samples of cannabinoids.

    Nutraceutical potential of hemp Cannabis sativa L. In this study the antioxidant effect of Cannabis sativa L. Total polyphenols, flavonoids and flavonols content, when expressed on dry weight basis, were highest in sprouts; ORAC and DPPH in vitro assays , CAA-RBC cellular antioxidant activity in red blood cells and hemolysis test ex vivo assays evidenced a good antioxidant activity higher in sprouts than in seeds.

    Antimutagenic effect of seeds and sprouts extracts evidenced a significant decrease of mutagenesis induced by hydrogen peroxide in Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7 strain.

    In conclusion our results show that C. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Identification of Cannabis sativa L. This study reports a successful application of fluorescence in situ hybridization FISH technique in the identification of Cannabis sativa L. Specificity of probe-target hybridization was tested against the target and 4 non-target plant species, i. Probe-target hybridization was also confirmed against 20 individual Cannabis plant samples.

    It was also showed that 1-kb THCA synthase FISH probe can be applied to identify small amount of dried powdered Cannabis material with an addition of rehydration step prior to the experimental process.

    This study provided an alternative identification method for Cannabis trace. Published by Elsevier B. Most narcotics-related cases in the United States involve Cannabis sativa.

    Material is typically identified based on the cystolithic hairs on the leaves and with chemical tests to identify of the presence of cannabinoids.

    Suspect seeds are germinated into a viable plant so that morphological and chemical tests can be conducted. Seed germination, however, causes undue analytical delays. DNA analyses that involve the chloroplast and nuclear genomes have been developed for identification of C.

    Using the trnL 3' exon-trnF intragenic spacer regions within the C. This assay provides forensic science laboratories with a quick and reliable method to identify an unknown sample as C. Because of limitation in cultivation of this plant , an efficient hairy root induction system for Cannabis sativa L. Molecular analysis of transformed root lines was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction using specific primers of the rolB gene. The transformation frequency by Murashige and Skoog co-cultivation medium resulting in hairy root induction frequencies of This study established a reliable protocol for induction of hairy roots of C.

    Metals and organic compounds in the biosynthesis of cannabinoids: Illicit production and trade of Cannabis sativa affect many societies. This drug is the most popular and easy to produce. Important information for the authorities is the production locality and the indicators of a particular production. This work is an attempt to recognise correlations between the metal content in the different parts of C. In this study, numerous correlations between metal content in plants and soil, already confirmed in previous publications, were analysed applying chemometric unsupervised methods, that is, principal component analysis, factor analysis and cluster analysis, in order to highlight their role in the biosynthesis of cannabinoids.

    Heat exposure of Cannabis sativa extracts affects the pharmacokinetic and metabolic profile in healthy male subjects. Cannabidiol CBD , another important constituent, is able to modulate the distinct unwanted psychotropic effect of THC. In natural plant extracts of C. Therefore, in the present study, the pharmacokinetics and metabolic profiles of two different C. The pharmacokinetics of the cannabinoids was highly variable.

    The metabolic pattern was significantly different after administration of the different forms: The later was slightly higher than that of dronabinol 4. These results indicate that use of unheated extracts may lead to a beneficial change in metabolic pattern and possibly better tolerability.

    Trichomes of Cannabis sativa as viewed with scanning electron microscope. Direct examination of fresh, unfixed and uncoated specimens from vegetative and floral parts of Cannabis sativa with the scanning electron microscope enables one to obtain a faithful representation of their surface morphology. The presence of two major types of trichomes has been confirmed: Moreover, three or possibly four distinct glandular types can be distinguished: The nonglandular trichomes can be distinguished by the nature of their surfaces: The range of size and distribution, and the special features of all these types of trichomes are also provided.

    Cannabis Cannabis sativa L. At the University of Mississippi, different strains of C. A GC-FID method has been developed and validated for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of acid and neutral cannabinoids in C. The method involves trimethyl silyl derivatization of the extracts. The limit of detection range was 0. The developed method is simple, sensitive, reproducible, and suitable for the detection and quantitation of acidic and neutral cannabinoids in different extracts of cannabis varieties.

    The method was applied to the analysis of these cannabinoids in different parts of the micropropagated cannabis plants buds, leaves, roots, and stems. Prevalence of sensitization to Cannabis sativa. Lipid-transfer and thaumatin-like proteins are relevant allergens. Although allergy to Cannabis sativa was first reported over 40 years ago, the allergenicity has scarcely been studied.

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the frequency of sensitization to this plant , to analyze the clinical characteristics and allergenic profile of sensitized individuals and to identify the allergens involved. Five hundred and forty-five individuals in Spain attending allergy clinics with respiratory or cutaneous symptoms underwent a skin-prick test SPT with C. Of this preselected population, 44 individuals had positive SPT to C.

    Prevalence was higher in individuals who were C. Two individuals reported mild symptoms with C. Twenty-one individuals from 32 available sera Twelve sera recognized at least 6 different bands in a molecular-weight range of between 10 and 60 kDa. Six of them recognized a kDa band, identified as a lipid transfer protein LTP and 8 recognized a kDa band, identified as a thaumatin-like protein.

    There is a high prevalence of sensitization to C. The clinical symptoms directly attributed to C. The sensitization profile observed suggests that C. The effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Cannabis Sativa on appetite hormone in rat. Ghrelin is an orexigenic peptide which is secreted from stomach. Cannabis sativa is known as an orexigenic herb in Iranian traditional medicine. Little evidence is published about its effect on energy intake and its mechanism. In the current study, the possible effect of hydroalcoholic extract of C.

    Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups. Two control groups were selected, the first group received 0. Total ghrelin levels in plasma were measured for 3 h post-gavage. There was no significant difference in energy intake between control and vehicle groups.

    This study showed that C. Future studies are warranted to evaluate the orexigenic effect of this plant in human. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of the dioecious Cannabis sativa with an XY chromosome sex determination system. The karyotype has 18 autosomes plus a sex chromosome pair XX in female and XY in male plants. The autosomes are difficult to distinguish morphologically, but three pairs could be distinguished using the probes.

    The X is the largest chromosome of all, and carries CS-1 subtelomeric repeats on both arms. The meiotic configuration of the sex bivalent locates a pseudoautosomal region of the Y chromosome at the end of the euchromatic CScarrying arm. Our molecular cytogenetic study of the C.

    Trichomes, especially the capitate-stalked glandular hairs, are well known as the main sites of cannabinoid and essential oil production of Cannabis sativa. In this study the distribution and density of various types of Cannabis sativa L trichomes, have been investigated by scanning electron. Induction of mutants in Cannabis Sativa L. A description is given of the mutations induced in a well known cultivar of fibre hemp belonging to the species Cannabis sativa in order to obtain new phenotypic characters that could unequivocally differentiate it from drug hemp.

    These new cultivars, named red petiole exhibiting anthocyanin leaf petioles and yellow apex exhibiting yellow distal leaflets , have been compared with varieties C. These agronomical trials highlighted the good performance of both new cultivars as for yield in dry matter and in fibre, not significantly different from the results of carmagnola. Besides, the new cultivars showed THC contents 0. Minor oxygenated cannabinoids from high potency Cannabis sativa L.

    Nine oxygenated cannabinoids were isolated from a high potency Cannabis sativa L. Diversity analysis in Cannabis sativa based on large-scale development of expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeat markers. However, lack of sufficient simple sequence repeat SSR markers has limited the development of cannabis genetic research. Here, large-scale development of expressed sequence tag simple sequence repeat EST-SSR markers was performed to obtain more informative genetic markers, and to assess genetic diversity in cannabis Cannabis sativa L.

    From there, a total of 3, complementary primer pairs were designed as SSR markers. Among these markers, trinucleotide repeat motifs Among these markers, Forty-five polymorphic primer pairs were selected to evaluate genetic diversity and relatedness among the cannabis genotypes.

    The results showed that varieties could be divided into 4 groups primarily based on geography: Moreover, the coefficient of similarity when comparing cannabis from Northern China with the European group cannabis was higher than that when comparing with cannabis from the other two groups, owing to a similar climate. This study outlines the first large-scale development of SSR markers for cannabis. These data may serve as a foundation for the development of genetic linkage, quantitative trait loci mapping, and marker-assisted breeding of cannabis.

    In silico discovery of terpenoid metabolism in Cannabis sativa [version 1; referees: Full Text Available Due to their efficacy, cannabis based therapies are currently being prescribed for the treatment of many different medical conditions.

    This recommendation of the Italian National Toxicological Committee CCTN regards the possible toxic effects of some products derived from Cannabis sativa , indica variety.

    The CCTN has especially evaluated genotoxic, immunological and toxic to reproduction effects of these substances, on the basis of the results from both experimental studies and observations on humans.

    The effect of tetraploidy induction on morphology and anatomy characteristics of Cannabis sativa L. Flow cytometry analyses were used to confirm the ploidy level. Morphologic and anatomic characteristics between tetraploid and diploid control plants were compared. The results showed that 0. The percentage of tetraploid plants and the survival rate were lowered by increasing the treatment time. In addition, the leaf index and height of tetraploid plants exhibited a significant decrease compared to the diploid plants.

    The size of leaves' epidermis stomata were larger in tetraploid plant compared to the diploid ones, in spite of their less density of stomata. However, the amount of total chlorophyll and carotenoids were almost the same in both of tetraploid and diploid plants. In addition, some differences were also observed in the cross section of stem of these plants from the descriptive structure point of view.

    On the whole, the results introduced usage of the stomata parameters as an effective and convenient method for detecting the tetraploid plants however, the flow cytometry analysis was more effective in assessing the ploidy percentage.

    Anxiety, Cannabis toxicity, Cortex, Memory, Hippocampus. Effects of Cannabis sativa extract on haloperidol-induced catalepsy and oxidative stress in the mice. Haloperidol is a classic antipsychotic drug known for its propensity to cause extrapyramidal symptoms due to blockade of dopamine D2 receptors in the striatum.

    Interest in medicinal uses of cannabis is growing. Cannabis sativa has been suggested as a possible adjunctive in treatment of Parkinson's disease. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of repeated administration of an extract of Cannabis sativa on catalepsy and brain oxidative stress induced by haloperidol administration in mice. Mice were euthanized 18 days after starting cannabis injection when biochemical assays were carried out.

    Mice treated with cannabis and haloperidol showed significant decrease in catalepsy duration, compared with the haloperidol only treated group.

    This decrease in catalepsy duration was evident on days after starting cannabis injection. Later the effect of cannabis was not apparent. Glucose in brain decreased by The administration of only haloperidol increased MDA Monitoring Metabolite Profiles of Cannabis sativa L. Cannabis sativa trichomes are glandular structures predominantly responsible for the biosynthesis of cannabinoids, the biologically active compounds unique to this plant.

    To the best of our knowledge, most metabolomic works on C. Partial least squares discriminant analysis models successfully classified metabolites of the trichomes based on the harvest time. According to RT-PCR analysis, gene expression levels of olivetol synthase and olivetolic acid cyclase influenced the accumulation of cannabinoids in the Cannabis trichomes during the monitoring time. Effect of induced polyploidy on some biochemical parameters in Cannabis sativa L.

    This study is aimed at testing the efficiency of colchicine on inducing polyploidy in Cannabis sativa L. Shoot tips were treated with three different concentrations of colchicine 0, 0. The biggest proportion of the almost coplanar tetraploids The ploidy levels were screened with flow cytometry. The biochemical analyses showed that reducing sugars, soluble sugars, total protein, and total flavonoids increased significantly in mixoploid plants compared with tetraploid and diploid plants.

    Tetraploid plants had a higher amount of total proteins, total flavonoids, and starch in comparison with control plants. The results showed that polyploidization could increase the contents of tetrahydrocannabinol in mixoploid plants only, but tetraploid plants had lower amounts of this substance in comparison with diploids.

    Also, we found such changes in protein concentration in electrophoresis analysis. In overall, our study suggests that tetraploidization could not be useful to produce tetrahydrocannabinol for commercial use, and in this case, mixoploids are more suitable. The potential of hemp Cannabis sativa L. A comprehensive research programme in the Netherlands has concluded that fibre hemp is a potentially profitable crop, having the right profile to fit into sustainable farming systems. Effect of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa alcoholic extract on spermatogenesis in the adult wistar male rats.

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of alcohol extracts of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa that were used traditionally in medieval Persian medicine as male contraceptive drugs, on spermatogenesis in the adult male rats. Ethanol extracts of these plants were obtained by the maceration method. The male rats were injected intraperitionaly with C.

    Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, testicular function was assessed by epididymal sperm count. The results also showed that the group, treated by extract of R. The present study demonstrated the spermatogenesis reducing properties of the ethanol extracts of R.

    Ameliorative Efficacy of Nigella Sativa. Cannabis is a widely used illicit drug with various threats of personality syndrome, and Nigella sativa has been widely implicated as having therapeutic efficacy in many neurological diseases. The present study investigates the ameliorative efficacy of Nigella sativa oil NSO on cannabis -induced moto-cognitive defects.

    The Morris water maze MWM paradigm was used to assess the memory index, the elevated plus maze was used for anxiety-like behaviour, and the open field test was used for locomotor activities; thereafter, the rats were sacrificed and their brains were removed for histopathologic studies. Cannabis -like Scopolamine caused memory impairment, delayed latency in the MWM, and anxiety-like behaviour, coupled with alterations in the cerebello-hippocampal neurons.

    The post-treatment of rats with NSO mitigated cannabis -induced cognitive dysfunction as with scopolamine and impaired anxiety-like behaviour by increasing open arm entry, line crossing, and histological changes. The observed ameliorative effects of NSO make it a promising agent against moto-cognitive dysfunction and cerebelo-hippocampal alterations induced by cannabis. Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant , Cannabis sativa , used both as a recreational drug or as medicine.

    It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breastfeeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at Effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on the growth, physiology and cannabinoid production of Cannabis sativa L.

    The concentration of cannabinoids in Cannabis sativa L. The object of this study was to test the effects of UV-B radiation on the physiology and cannabinoid production of C. Drug and fiber-type C. Physiological measurements on leaf tissues were made by infra-red gas analysis.

    Drug and fiber-type control plants had similar CO 2 assimilation rates from 26 to 32 0 C. Drug-type control plant had higher dark respiration rates and stomatal conductances than fiber-type control plants. None of the cannabinoids in fiber-type plants were affected by UV-B radiation. However, fiber plants showed no comparable change in the level of cannabidoil CBD. Resin stripped form fresh fiber-type floral tissue by sonication was spotted on filter paper and irradiated continuously for 7 days.

    The increased level of.. Cannabidiol CBD gradually decreased when irradiated but.. Marijuana Cannabis sativa L. The development of a validated method using molecular techniques such as short tandem repeats STRs could serve as an intelligence tool to link multiple cases by means of genetic individualization or association of cannabis samples. The STR multiplex consists of 13 previously described C.

    A sequenced allelic ladder consisting of 56 alleles was designed to accurately genotype C. Customs and Border Protection crime lab. Using an optimal range of DNA 0. This multi-locus system is relatively sensitive 0. The 13 STR panel was found to be species specific for C. The results of this research demonstrate the robustness and applicability of this 13 loci STR system for forensic DNA profiling of marijuana samples.

    Full Text Available Gene expression profiling via quantitative real-time PCR is a robust technique widely used in the life sciences to compare gene expression patterns in, e. In the field of plant science, real-time PCR is the gold standard to study the dynamics of gene expression and is used to validate the results generated with high throughput techniques, e. An accurate relative quantification of gene expression relies on the identification of appropriate reference genes, that need to be determined for each experimental set-up used and plant tissue studied.

    Here, we identify suitable reference genes for expression profiling in stems of textile hemp Cannabis sativa L. We additionally validate the reference genes by analysing the expression of putative candidates involved in the non-oxidative phase of the pentose phosphate pathway and in the first step of the shikimate pathway.

    The goal is to describe the possible regulation pattern of some genes involved in the provision of the precursors needed for lignin biosynthesis in the different hemp stem tissues. The results here shown are useful to design future studies focused on gene expression analyses in hemp. Gene expression profiling via quantitative real-time PCR is a robust technique widely used in the life sciences to compare gene expression patterns in, e.

    Early Phenylpropanoid Biosynthetic Steps in Cannabis sativa: Link between Genes and Metabolites. CoA ligase 4CL catalyze the first three steps of the general phenylpropanoid pathway whereas chalcone synthase CHS catalyzes the first specific step towards flavonoids production. This class of specialized metabolites has a wide range of biological functions in plant development and defence and a broad spectrum of therapeutic activities for human health.

    Quantitative expression analysis of the four above mentioned genes, PAL and 4CL enzymatic activities, lignin content and NMR metabolite fingerprinting in different Cannabis sativa tissues were evaluated. Furthermore, the use of different substrates to assay PAL and 4CL enzymatic activities indicated that different isoforms were active in different tissues.

    The diversity in secondary metabolites content observed in leaves mainly flavonoids and roots mainly lignin was discussed in relation to gene expression and enzymatic activities data.

    Early phenylpropanoid biosynthetic steps in Cannabis sativa: A Vademecum for Molecular Biologists. Full Text Available In plants there is no universal protocol for RNA extraction, since optimizations are required depending on the species, tissues and developmental stages. One such example is bast fibres, long extraxylary cells characterized by a thick cellulosic cell wall.

    Given the economic importance of bast fibres, which are used in the textile sector, as well as in biocomposites as green substitutes of glass fibres, it is desirable to better understand their development from a molecular point of view.

    This knowledge favours the development of biotechnological strategies aimed at improving specific properties of bast fibres. To be able to perform high-throughput analyses, such as, for instance, transcriptomics of bast fibres, RNA extraction is a crucial and limiting step. We here detail a protocol enabling the rapid extraction of high quality RNA from the bast fibres of textile hemp, Cannabis sativa L.

    Variation in vegetative growth and trichomes in Cannabis sativa L. Marihuana in response to enviromental pollution. Four populations of Cannabis sativa L. Leaf length, petiole length, length and width of central leaflet, and the number of teeth on leaf margin decreased with increase in pollution.

    Trichome length and trichome density values were found to be higher in populations exposed to higher levels of environmental pollution.

    Enhancement of metal loid s phytoextraction by Cannabis sativa L. DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Here we extend the application of STR markers to Cannabis sativa and demonstrate their potential for forensic investigations. Ninety-three individual cannabis plants , representing drug and fibre accessions of widespread origin were profiled with five STR makers. A total of 79 alleles were detected across the five loci. All but four individuals from a single drug-type accession had a unique multilocus genotype.

    However, our results suggest that drug strains may typically possess lower genetic diversity than fibre strains, which may ultimately provide a means of genetic delineation. Our findings demonstrate the promise of cannabis STR markers to provide information on: Protein estimation and palynlogical studies of cannabis sativa l.

    Airborne pollen allergies and asthma are on a rise in the metropolitan city of Islamabad. Knowledge of allergenic pollen is limited in the area. Morphological studies performed via light microscopy and SEM have shown that the pollen of Cannabis sativa are 21 micro m long having triporate aperture, spheroidal in shape and scaberate exine.

    Quantitative and qualitative analysis of pollen proteins has also be done in to recognize allergenic protein bands. Bradford's analysis for proteins quantification has shown that the hemp pollen has The research findings indicate that Cannabis sativa , could be a potent allergenic pollen-producing weed that might cause serious health problems in the population of Islamabad.

    Standardized Cannabis sativa extract attenuates tau and stathmin gene expression in the melanoma cell line. Metastasis is the main cause of death in patients with melanoma. Cannabis -based medicines are effective adjunctive drugs in cancer patients. Tau and Stathmin proteins are the key proteins in cancer metastasis.

    Here we have investigated the effect of a standardized Cannabis sativa extract on cell migration and Tau and Stathmin gene expression in the melanoma cell line.

    In the treatment group, melanoma B was treated 48 hr with various concentrations of standardized C. Migration assay was used to evaluate cancer metastasis. Tau and stathmin gene expression was significantly decreased compared to the control group.

    Cell migration was also significantly reduced compared to controls. The results may have some clinical relevance for the use of cannabis -based medicines in patients with metastatic melanoma. Full Text Available Objective s: Evaluation of a loci STR multiplex system for Cannabis sativa genetic identification. Marijuana Cannabis sativa is the most commonly used illicit substance in the USA.

    The development of a validated method using Cannabis short tandem repeats STRs could aid in the individualization of samples as well as serve as an intelligence tool to link multiple cases. A real-time PCR quantification method for C. Customs and Border Protection seizures. Four duplicate genotypes within seizures were found. The combined power of discrimination of this multilocus system is 1 in 70 million.

    The sensitivity of the multiplex STR system is 0. None of the 13 STR markers cross-reacted with any of the studied species, except for Humulus lupulus hops which generated unspecific peaks. Phylogenetic analysis and case-to-case pairwise comparison of 11 cases using F st as genetic distance revealed the genetic association of four groups of cases. The results of this research demonstrate the applicability of this loci STR system in associating Cannabis cases for intelligence purposes.

    Cannabidiol rather than Cannabis sativa extracts inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in cervical cancer cells. Cervical cancer remains a global health related issue among females of Sub-Saharan Africa, with over half a million new cases reported each year. Different therapeutic regimens have been suggested in various regions of Africa, however, over a quarter of a million women die of cervical cancer, annually. This makes it the most lethal cancer amongst black women and calls for urgent therapeutic strategies.

    In this study we compare the anti-proliferative effects of crude extract of Cannabis sativa and its main compound cannabidiol on different cervical cancer cell lines. Results obtained indicate that both cannabidiol and Cannabis sativa extracts were able to halt cell proliferation in all cell lines at varying concentrations. Apoptosis was confirmed by overexpression of p53, caspase 3 and bax. In conclusion, these data suggest that cannabidiol rather than Cannabis sativa crude extracts prevent cell growth and induce cell death in cervical cancer cell lines.

    Full Text Available A project was planned to study the effect of feeding powdered seeds of Cannabis sativa on the carcass quality of broiler chicks. A total of day-old broiler chicks of equal weight were randomly divided into four equal groups A, B, C and D.

    Each group was further divided into four replicates with 10 chicks in each replicate. The studied parameters were body weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio FCR, dressing percentage, mortality and economics.

    After an experimental period of 42 days, the data were analyzed statistically. It was revealed from the results that body weight gain was significantly higher P Cannabis sativa have remarkable impact on growth of broiler chicks and can help in alleviating feed expenditure incurred on raising broiler chicks.

    Inhibition of aldose reductase activity by Cannabis sativa chemotypes extracts with high content of cannabidiol or cannabigerol. Aldose reductase ALR2 is a key enzyme involved in diabetic complications and the search for new aldose reductase inhibitors ARIs is currently very important.

    The synthetic ARIs are often associated with deleterious side effects and medicinal and edible plants , containing compounds with aldose reductase inhibitory activity, could be useful for prevention and therapy of diabetic complications.

    Non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids exert multiple pharmacological effects with therapeutic potential in many diseases such as inflammation, cancer, diabetes. Here, we have investigated the inhibitory effects of extracts and their fractions from two Cannabis sativa L. A molecular docking study was performed to evaluate the interaction of these cannabinoids with the active site of ALR2 compared to known ARIs. The inhibitory activity of the fractions was greater for acidic cannabinoid-rich fractions.

    Comparative molecular docking results have shown a higher stability of the ALR2-cannabinoid acids complex than the other inhibitors. These results may have some relevance for the possible use of C. Assessment of the use and misuse of Cannabis sativa amongst some residents of Jos metropolis, Nigeria. Full Text Available Background: Cannabis can be used for its medicinal properties when used appropriately. However, the misuse of the product can cause some unwanted effects such as psychological dependence, and therefore addiction.

    The objective of the study was to determine the extent of misuse of Cannabis sativa in Jos and environs. The use and misuse of C. The result showed that The result also shows that at least The result of the study showed an observed high incidence of C. Boost confidence, feel high, increase alertness, and decrease fatigue. Similarly, a high percentage of the respondents said the drug is used for hair treatment.

    Cannabis ; extracting the medicine. The cannabis plant Cannabis sativa L. Nowadays, it is used by a large number of patients worldwide, to ameliorate the symptoms of diseases varying from cancer and AIDS to multiple sclerosis and.

    Identification of IgE- binding pollen protein from Cannabis sativa in pollen-hypersensitive patients from north Pakistan. However, allergies in relation to Cannabis sativa C. Although categorized as an aeroallergen, there are limited number of reports regarding allergenic potential in C. Therefore, the current study is aimed at exploring the IgE- binding potential among the C.

    Initial screening of C. Eight bands were visible on gel however only one protein fragment i. Strong IgE affinity of a 14 kDa protein fragment from C. Further study is required to find the exact nature of this protein fragment. Nowadays, it is used by a large number of patients worldwide, to ameliorate the symptoms of diseases varying from cancer and AIDS to multiple sclerosis and migraine.

    The discovery of cannabinoid-receptors and the endocannabinoid system have opened up a new and exciting field of research. But despite the pharmaceutical potential of cannabis , its classifi Non-cannabinoid constituents from a high potency Cannabis sativa variety. Six new non-cannabinoid constituents were isolated from a high potency Cannabis sativa L. Some isolates displayed weak to strong antimicrobial, antileishmanial, antimalarial and anti-oxidant activities.

    Compounds 2—4 were inactive as analgesics. Los productos de Cannabis sativa: Safety and side effects of cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent. Cannabidiol CBD , a major nonpsychotropic constituent of Cannabis , has multiple pharmacological actions, including anxiolytic, antipsychotic, antiemetic and anti-inflammatory properties.

    However, little is known about its safety and side effect profile in animals and humans. This review describes in vivo and in vitro reports of CBD administration across a wide range of concentrations, based on reports retrieved from Web of Science, Scielo and Medline. The keywords searched were "cannabinoids", "cannabidiol" and "side effects".

    Several studies suggest that CBD is non-toxic in non-transformed cells and does not induce changes on food intake, does not induce catalepsy, does not affect physiological parameters heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature , does not affect gastrointestinal transit and does not alter psychomotor or psychological functions. Conversely, some studies reported that this cannabinoid can induce some side effects, including inhibition of hepatic drug metabolism, alterations of in vitro cell viability, decreased fertilization capacity, and decreased activities of p-glycoprotein and other drug transporters.

    Based on recent advances in cannabinoid administration in humans, controlled CBD may be safe in humans and animals. However, further studies are needed to clarify these reported in vitro and in vivo side effects.

    In this study the distribution and density of various types of Cannabis sativa L. Furthermore, glandular trichomes were isolated over the flowering period 8 weeks by laser microdissection LMD and the cannabinoid profile analyzed by LCMS.

    Cannabinoids were detected in extracts of collected cells of capitate-sessile and capitate stalked trichomes and separately in the gland head and the stem of the latter. Cannabichromene [CBC 8 ] along with cannabinol CBN 9 were identified as minor compounds only in the samples of intact capitate-stalked trichomes and their heads harvested from 8-week old plants.

    The hereby documented detection of metabolites in the stems of capitate-stalked trichomes indicates a complex biosynthesis and localization over the trichome cells forming the glandular secretion unit. Nature has developed many pathways to produce medicinal products of extraordinary potency and specificity with significantly higher efficiencies than current synthetic methods can achieve.

    Identification of these mechanisms and their precise locations within plants could substantially increase the yield of a number of natural pharmaceutics.

    In line with previous observations we find high concentrations of THCa in pistillate flowering bodies and relatively low amounts within flowering bracts. Surprisingly, we find differences in the local morphologies of the THCa-containing bodies: We have also identified two distinct vibrational signatures associated with THCa, both in pure crystalline form and within Cannabis plants ; at present the exact natures of these spectra remain an open question.

    Cold acclimation induces distinctive changes in the chromatin state and transcript levels of COR genes in Cannabis sativa varieties with contrasting cold acclimation capacities. Little is known about the capacity of Cannabis sativa to cold-acclimate and develop freezing tolerance. This study investigates the cold acclimation CA capacity of nine C. The varieties were divided into three groups based on their contrasting CA capacities by comparing the survival of non-acclimated and cold-acclimated plants in whole- plant freeze tests.

    In response to the CA treatment, all varieties accumulated soluble sugars but only the varieties with superior capacity for CA could maintain higher levels throughout the treatment. In addition, the varieties that acclimated most efficiently accumulated higher transcript levels of cold-regulated COR genes and genes involved in de novo DNA methylation while displaying locus- and variety-specific changes in the levels of H3K9ac, H3K27me3 and methylcytosine MeC during CA.

    Furthermore, these hardy C. This study uncovers the molecular mechanisms underlying CA in C. EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology. Structural basis for olivetolic acid formation by a polyketide cyclase from Cannabis sativa. In polyketide biosynthesis, ring formation is one of the key diversification steps. Olivetolic acid cyclase OAC from Cannabis sativa , involved in cannabinoid biosynthesis, is the only known plant polyketide cyclase. The crystal structures revealed that the enzyme indeed belongs to the DABB superfamily, as previously proposed, and possesses a unique active-site cavity containing the pentyl-binding hydrophobic pocket and the polyketide binding site, which have never been observed among the functionally and structurally characterized bacterial polyketide cyclases.

    The structural and functional insights obtained in this work thus provide the foundation for analyses of the plant polyketide cyclases that will be discovered in the future. The major degradation products identified were 3-hydroxy-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl2-methylpropanoate and 2-ethylhydroxyhexyl2-methylpropanoate compounds.

    These are found in higher levels in the exhalations of colorectal cancer patients and are similar to the toxic products associated with lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In Wistar rats, females treated with BC degraded by CSS BCCSS showed whitish liver spots, alterations in liver weight and in bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase levels, and decrease in the number of leukocytes associated with atypical lymphocytosis.

    In male rats, there was an increase in the number of leukocytes when compared to the control group. In the histopathological analysis, the cortical region of the kidneys showed the presence of discrete amorphous eosinophilic material cylinders in the lumen of the proximate and distal convoluted tubules.

    Molecular cytogenetic analysis of monoecious hemp Cannabis sativa L. Sex expression is controlled by an X-to-autosome balance system consisting of the heteromorphic sex chromosomes XY for males and XX for females. Genetically monoecious hemp offers several agronomic advantages compared to the dioecious cultivars that are widely used in hemp cultivation.

    The male or female origin of monoecious maternal plants is unknown. Additionally, the sex chromosome composition of monoecious hemp forms remains unknown. In this study, we examine the sex chromosome makeup in monoecious hemp using a cytogenetic approach.

    Eight monoecious and two dioecious cultivars were used. All monoecious plants showed female amplification patterns. There was a high level of intra- and intercultivar karyotype variation detected.

    The results of this study can be used for further analysis of the genetic basis of sex expression in plants. The Cannabis sativa Versus Cannabis indica Debate: Ethan Russo, MD, is a board-certified neurologist, psychopharmacology researcher, and Medical Director of PHYTECS, a biotechnology company researching and developing innovative approaches targeting the human endocannabinoid system. He is the author of numerous books, book chapters, and articles on Cannabis , ethnobotany, and herbal medicine.

    Yield Potential of Hemp Cannabis sativa L. In order to determine the yield potential of fibre hemp in Denmark, defined as seed yield, biomass, stem and fibre production, five cultivars were evaluated in field trials at two sites during The total dry matter yield, stem yield, fibre yield, fibre percent, plant height, and seed Plants and the Endocannabinoid System. Plants have been the predominant source of medicines throughout the vast majority of human history, and remain so today outside of industrialized societies.

    One of the most versatile in terms of its phytochemistry is cannabis , whose investigation has led directly to the discovery of a unique and widespread homeostatic physiological regulator, the endocannabinoid system. While it had been the conventional wisdom until recently that only cannabis harbored active agents affecting the endocannabinoid system, in recent decades the search has widened and identified numerous additional plants whose components stimulate, antagonize, or modulate different aspects of this system.

    These include common foodstuffs, herbs, spices, and more exotic ingredients:

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    In this review, the rich spectrum of hemp phytochemicals is discussed by putting a special . Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) plants produce and accumulate a terpene-rich resin in Our identification of OAC both clarifies the cannabinoid pathway and . The biological effects of cannabis render it useful for the complementary. In this review, the rich spectrum of hemp phytochemicals is discussed by Biotechnological avenues to enhance the production and bioactivity of hemp . understanding the chemistry, biology, and medicinal properties of this plant. .. ideal pathway for ensuring the efficacy of micropropagated Cannabis sativa germplasm. In this review, the rich spectrum of hemp phytochemicals is discussed by putting a terpenes and phenolic compounds, and their biosynthetic routes. Biotechnological avenues to enhance the production and bioactivity of hemp . The Pentacyclic Triterpenes, -amyrins: A Review of Sources and Biological Activities.

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    In this review, the rich spectrum of hemp phytochemicals is discussed by putting a special . Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) plants produce and accumulate a terpene-rich resin in Our identification of OAC both clarifies the cannabinoid pathway and . The biological effects of cannabis render it useful for the complementary.


    In this review, the rich spectrum of hemp phytochemicals is discussed by Biotechnological avenues to enhance the production and bioactivity of hemp . understanding the chemistry, biology, and medicinal properties of this plant. .. ideal pathway for ensuring the efficacy of micropropagated Cannabis sativa germplasm.


    In this review, the rich spectrum of hemp phytochemicals is discussed by putting a terpenes and phenolic compounds, and their biosynthetic routes. Biotechnological avenues to enhance the production and bioactivity of hemp . The Pentacyclic Triterpenes, -amyrins: A Review of Sources and Biological Activities.


    ) and from the polyketide pathway (Shoyama et al. catalyze the initial key reactions in the biosynthesis of a myriad of secondary of cannabis plants and show a correlation between the production of Resorcinolic lipids, the natural non-isoprenoid phenolic amphiphiles and their biological activity.


    A second strategy is the production of chemicals that are noxious to many phytochemicals that elicit neurobiological responses in animals and humans . the ability to consume plants that produce a myriad of natural biopesticides (Koul, ). .. Although the controlled surveillance and activity of immune cells are critical.


    Cannabinoids are produced by the Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabis) plant, by the are cannabimimetic, literally mimicking the biological activity of the classical a better understanding of its myriad benefits and cannabimimetics are of . are formed by the combination of three different biogenetic pathways”.

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