There are many types of cancer treatment. The types of treatment that you receive will depend on the type of cancer you have and how. Information on cancer treatment methods, specific anticancer drugs, and drug development and approval. Research updates, cancer treatment. Your treatment depends on where your cancer is, how big it is, whether it has spread, and your general health. There are different types of treatment you might .
For example, we need people affected by cancer to review our booklets, from home, in their own time. What's happening near you? Find out about support groups, where to get information and how to get involved with Macmillan where you are. Share experiences and get support about any types of cancer treatment, including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery, biological or hormonal therapies, transplants, and clinical trials. Thanks We rely on a number of sources to gather evidence for our information.
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Fund a research award Research awards are a chance to fund a specific type of cancer research. Most cells in the body grow and divide to form new cells. But cancer cells grow and divide faster than many of the normal cells around them. Radiation works by making small breaks in the DNA inside cell. Radiation might not be a choice of treatment if the tumour was diagnosed on the late stage or is located on vulnerable places. Moreover, radiation causes significant side effects if used in children aged 0— It was determined to be a beneficial treatment but it causes significant side effects that influence the lifestyle of the young patients.
Radiotherapy is the use of high-energy rays, usually x-rays and similar rays such as electrons to treat disease. It works by destroying cancer cells in the area that's treated. Although normal cells can also be damaged by radiotherapy, they can usually repair themselves, but cancer cells can't. If the tumour was found on the late stage, it requires patients to have higher radiation exposure which might be harmful for the organs.
In children radiotherapy mostly causes long-term side effects such as hearing loss and blindness. Children who had received cranial radiotherapy are deemed at a high risk for academic failure and cognitive delay. Study by Reddy A. Radiation therapy is not the best treatment for brain tumours, especially in young children as it causes significant damages. There are alternative treatments available for young patients such as surgical resection to decrease the occurrence of side effects.
Chemotherapy is the treatment of cancer with drugs "anticancer drugs" that can destroy cancer cells. In current usage, the term "chemotherapy" usually refers to cytotoxic drugs which affect rapidly dividing cells in general, in contrast with targeted therapy see below. Chemotherapy drugs interfere with cell division in various possible ways, e. Most forms of chemotherapy target all rapidly dividing cells and are not specific to cancer cells, although some degree of specificity may come from the inability of many cancer cells to repair DNA damage , while normal cells generally can.
Hence, chemotherapy has the potential to harm healthy tissue, especially those tissues that have a high replacement rate e. These cells usually repair themselves after chemotherapy. Because some drugs work better together than alone, two or more drugs are often given at the same time. This is called "combination chemotherapy"; most chemotherapy regimens are given in a combination.
The treatment of some leukaemias and lymphomas requires the use of high-dose chemotherapy, and total body irradiation TBI. This treatment ablates the bone marrow, and hence the body's ability to recover and repopulate the blood. For this reason, bone marrow, or peripheral blood stem cell harvesting is carried out before the ablative part of the therapy, to enable "rescue" after the treatment has been given. This is known as autologous stem cell transplantation. Targeted therapy, which first became available in the late s, has had a significant impact in the treatment of some types of cancer, and is currently a very active research area.
This constitutes the use of agents specific for the deregulated proteins of cancer cells. Small molecule targeted therapy drugs are generally inhibitors of enzymatic domains on mutated, overexpressed, or otherwise critical proteins within the cancer cell.
Monoclonal antibody therapy is another strategy in which the therapeutic agent is an antibody which specifically binds to a protein on the surface of the cancer cells. Targeted therapy can also involve small peptides as "homing devices" which can bind to cell surface receptors or affected extracellular matrix surrounding the tumor.
Radionuclides which are attached to these peptides e. RGDs eventually kill the cancer cell if the nuclide decays in the vicinity of the cell. Especially oligo- or multimers of these binding motifs are of great interest, since this can lead to enhanced tumor specificity and avidity.
Photodynamic therapy PDT is a ternary treatment for cancer involving a photosensitizer, tissue oxygen, and light often using lasers . PDT can be used as treatment for basal cell carcinoma BCC or lung cancer ; PDT can also be useful in removing traces of malignant tissue after surgical removal of large tumors.
High-energy therapeutic ultrasound could increase higher-density anti-cancer drug load and nanomedicines to target tumor sites by 20x fold higher than traditional target cancer therapy. Cancer immunotherapy refers to a diverse set of therapeutic strategies designed to induce the patient's own immune system to fight the tumor.
Contemporary methods for generating an immune response against tumours include intravesical BCG immunotherapy for superficial bladder cancer, and use of interferons and other cytokines to induce an immune response in renal cell carcinoma and melanoma patients.
Cancer vaccines to generate specific immune responses are the subject of intensive research for a number of tumours, notably malignant melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. Sipuleucel-T is a vaccine-like strategy in late clinical trials for prostate cancer in which dendritic cells from the patient are loaded with prostatic acid phosphatase peptides to induce a specific immune response against prostate-derived cells. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation "bone marrow transplantation" from a genetically non-identical donor can be considered a form of immunotherapy, since the donor's immune cells will often attack the tumor in a phenomenon known as graft-versus-tumor effect.
For this reason, allogeneic HSCT leads to a higher cure rate than autologous transplantation for several cancer types, although the side effects are also more severe. NK cells and CTLs primarily kill the cancer cells when they are developed. Under normal conditions, the immune system utilizes checkpoint proteins as negative feedback mechanisms to return to homeostasis once pathogens have been cleared from the body. In tumor microenvironment, cancer cells can commandeer this physiological regulatory system to "put a brake" on the anti-cancer immune response and evade immune surveillance.
The growth of some cancers can be inhibited by providing or blocking certain hormones. Common examples of hormone-sensitive tumors include certain types of breast and prostate cancers. Blocking estrogen or testosterone is often an important additional treatment. In certain cancers, administration of hormone agonists, such as progestogens may be therapeutically beneficial. Angiogenesis inhibitors prevent the extensive growth of blood vessels angiogenesis that tumors require to survive.
Some, such as bevacizumab , have been approved and are in clinical use. One of the main problems with anti-angiogenesis drugs is that many factors stimulate blood vessel growth in cells normal or cancerous. Anti-angiogenesis drugs only target one factor, so the other factors continue to stimulate blood vessel growth. Other problems include route of administration , maintenance of stability and activity and targeting at the tumor vasculature.
Synthetic lethality arises when a combination of deficiencies in the expression of two or more genes leads to cell death, whereas a deficiency in only one of these genes does not. The deficiencies can arise through mutations, epigenetic alterations or inhibitors of one or both of the genes. Cancer cells are frequently deficient in a DNA repair gene. This DNA repair defect either may be due to mutation or, often, epigenetic silencing see epigenetic silencing of DNA repair.
Non-tumorous cells, with the initial pathway intact, can survive. There are five different stages of colon cancer, and these five stages all have treatment. Stage 0, is where the patient is required to undergo surgery to remove the polyp American Cancer Society . Stage 1, depending on the location of the cancer in the colon and lymph nodes, the patient undergoes surgery just like Stage 0. Stage 2 patients undergoes removing nearby lymph nodes, but depending on what the doctor says, the patent might have to undergo chemotherapy after surgery if the cancer is at higher risk of coming back.
Stage 3, is where the cancer has spread all throughout the lymph nodes but not yet to other organs or body parts. The last a patient can get is Stage 4. Stage 4 patients only undergo surgery if it is for the prevention of the cancer, along with pain relief. If the pain continues with these two options, the doctor might recommended radiation therapy.
The main treatment strategy is Chemotherapy due to how aggressive the cancer becomes in this stage not only to the colon but to the lymph nodes. Although the control of the symptoms of cancer is not typically thought of as a treatment directed at the cancer, it is an important determinant of the quality of life of cancer patients, and plays an important role in the decision whether the patient is able to undergo other treatments.
Although doctors generally have the therapeutic skills to reduce pain, Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting , diarrhea, hemorrhage and other common problems in cancer patients, the multidisciplinary specialty of palliative care has arisen specifically in response to the symptom control needs of this group of patients.
Pain medication , such as morphine and oxycodone , and antiemetics , drugs to suppress nausea and vomiting, are very commonly used in patients with cancer-related symptoms.
Improved antiemetics such as ondansetron and analogues, as well as aprepitant have made aggressive treatments much more feasible in cancer patients.
Cancer Treatment Options
Cancer treatment is the use of surgery, radiation, medications and other therapies to cure a cancer, shrink a cancer or stop the progression of a. Cancer can be treated by surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormonal therapy, targeted therapy and synthetic lethality. The choice of therapy depends. Learn about the different types of cancer treatment available. Find out which ones work best for you.