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Doxorubicin DOX is a widely used, potent chemotherapeutic agent; however, its clinical application is limited because of its dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. Cannabidiol CBD is a nonpsychotropic constituent of marijuana, which is well tolerated in humans, with antioxidant, antiinflammatory and recently discovered antitumor properties.
DOX-induced cardiomyopathy was characterized by increased myocardial injury elevated serum creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase levels , myocardial oxidative and nitrative stress decreased total glutathione content and glutathione peroxidase 1 activity, increased lipid peroxidation, 3-nitrotyrosine formation and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA , myocardial cell death apoptotic and poly[ADP]-ribose polymerase 1 [PARP]-dependent and cardiac dysfunction decline in ejection fraction and left ventricular fractional shortening.
These data suggest that CBD may represent a novel cardioprotective strategy against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, and the above-described effects on mitochondrial function and biogenesis may. Beale, Camilla; Broyd, Samantha J. Chronic cannabis use is associated with neuroanatomical alterations in the hippocampus.
This study examined whether prolonged administration of CBD to regular cannabis users within the community could reverse or reduce the characteristic hippocampal harms associated with chronic cannabis use.
Participants were assessed at baseline and post- CBD treatment using structural magnetic resonance imaging. Automated longitudinal hippocampal segmentation was performed to assess volumetric change over the whole hippocampus and within 12 subfields. No change was observed in left or right hippocampus as a whole. Heavy cannabis users demonstrated marked growth in the left subicular complex, predominantly within the presubiculum, and right cornu ammonis CA 1 compared to lighter users.
Associations between greater right subicular complex and total hippocampal volume and higher plasma CBD concentration were evident, particularly in heavy users. Our findings suggest a restorative effect of CBD on the subicular and CA1 subfields in current cannabis users, especially those with greater lifetime exposure to cannabis. While replication is required in a larger, placebo-controlled trial, these findings support a protective role of CBD against.
Relevance to Alzheimer's Disease. Microglial activation is an invariant feature of Alzheimer's disease AD. On the other hand, the phytocannabinoid cannabidiol CBD has shown anti-inflammatory properties in different paradigms. In contrast, 4-[4- 1,1-dimethylheptyl -2,6-dimethoxyphenyl]-6,6-dimethyl-bicyclo[3. All of the cannabinoids decreased lipopolysaccharide-induced nitrite generation, which was insensitive to cannabinoid antagonism.
In summary, CBD is able to modulate microglial cell function in vitro and induce beneficial effects in an in vivo model of AD.
Given that CBD lacks psychoactivity, it may represent a novel therapeutic approach for this neurological disease. The immunosuppressive activity of cannabinoids has been well established. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown.
To view the other articles in this section visit http: Safety and side effects of cannabidiol , a Cannabis sativa constituent. Cannabidiol CBD , a major nonpsychotropic constituent of Cannabis, has multiple pharmacological actions, including anxiolytic, antipsychotic, antiemetic and anti-inflammatory properties.
However, little is known about its safety and side effect profile in animals and humans. This review describes in vivo and in vitro reports of CBD administration across a wide range of concentrations, based on reports retrieved from Web of Science, Scielo and Medline.
The keywords searched were "cannabinoids", " cannabidiol " and "side effects". Several studies suggest that CBD is non-toxic in non-transformed cells and does not induce changes on food intake, does not induce catalepsy, does not affect physiological parameters heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature , does not affect gastrointestinal transit and does not alter psychomotor or psychological functions. Conversely, some studies reported that this cannabinoid can induce some side effects, including inhibition of hepatic drug metabolism, alterations of in vitro cell viability, decreased fertilization capacity, and decreased activities of p-glycoprotein and other drug transporters.
Based on recent advances in cannabinoid administration in humans, controlled CBD may be safe in humans and animals. However, further studies are needed to clarify these reported in vitro and in vivo side effects. Cannabidiol CBD is a major Cannabis sativa constituent, which does not cause the typical marijuana psychoactivity. However, it has been shown to be active in a numerous pharmacological assays, including mice tests for anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression and schizophrenia.
In human trials the doses of CBD needed to achieve effects in anxiety and schizophrenia are high. We report now the synthesis of 3 fluorinated CBD derivatives, one of which, 4'-F- CBD HUF 1 , is considerably more potent than CBD in behavioral assays in mice predictive of anxiolytic, antidepressant, antipsychotic and anti-compulsive activity.
Inhibition of aldose reductase activity by Cannabis sativa chemotypes extracts with high content of cannabidiol or cannabigerol.
Aldose reductase ALR2 is a key enzyme involved in diabetic complications and the search for new aldose reductase inhibitors ARIs is currently very important. The synthetic ARIs are often associated with deleterious side effects and medicinal and edible plants, containing compounds with aldose reductase inhibitory activity, could be useful for prevention and therapy of diabetic complications.
Non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids exert multiple pharmacological effects with therapeutic potential in many diseases such as inflammation, cancer, diabetes. Here, we have investigated the inhibitory effects of extracts and their fractions from two Cannabis sativa L. A molecular docking study was performed to evaluate the interaction of these cannabinoids with the active site of ALR2 compared to known ARIs.
The inhibitory activity of the fractions was greater for acidic cannabinoid-rich fractions. Comparative molecular docking results have shown a higher stability of the ALR2-cannabinoid acids complex than the other inhibitors. These results may have some relevance for the possible use of C. Accumulating evidence suggests that cannabidiol CBD may be an effective and safe anxiolytic agent and potentially also an antidepressant.
The objective of this study was to further examine these properties of CBD using the 'depressive-like' Wistar-Kyoto WKY rat, focusing on the drug's effect on anhedonia-like behaviors. These findings extend the limited knowledge on the antidepressant effect of CBD , now shown for the first time in a genetic animal model of depression.
These results suggest that CBD may be beneficial for the treatment of clinical depression and other states with prominent anhedonia. Cannabidiol in humans-the quest for therapeutic targets. Cannabidiol CBD , a major phytocannabinoid constituent of cannabis, is attracting growing attention in medicine for its anxiolytic, antipsychotic, antiemetic and anti-inflammatory properties.
However, up to this point, a comprehensive literature review of the effects of CBD in humans is lacking. The aim of the present systematic review is to examine the randomized and crossover studies that administered CBD to healthy controls and to clinical patients. Both monotherapy and combination studies e. A total of 34 studies were identified: Potential pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic explanations for these results are discussed.
Cannabidiol -induced apoptosis in primary lymphocytes is associated with oxidative stress-dependent activation of caspase We recently reported that cannabidiol CBD exhibited a generalized suppressive effect on T-cell functional activities in splenocytes directly exposed to CBD in vitro or isolated from CBD -administered mice. To investigate the potential mechanisms of CBD effects on T cells, we characterized the pro-apoptotic effect of CBD on primary lymphocytes.
The apoptosis of splenocytes was markedly enhanced following CBD exposure in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, as evidenced by nuclear hypodiploidity and DNA strand breaks. Pretreatment of splenocytes with a cell-permeable inhibitor for caspase-8 significantly attenuated, in a concentration-dependent manner, CBD -mediated apoptosis, but not ROS production.
Collectively, the present study demonstrated that the apoptotic effect of CBD in primary lymphocytes is closely associated with oxidative stress-dependent activation of caspase CBD is a constituent of some strains of recreational cannabis but its content is highly variable.
This study was undertaken to determine if CBD could reverse hypothermia or hypolocomotor effects caused by THC in rats. Additional experiments determined the effects of pretreatment with the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist SR rimonabant.
CBD did not attentuate THC-induced hypothermia or hypolocomotion but instead exaggerated these effects in some conditions. There is no evidence from this study that elevated CBD content in cannabis could provide protection from the physiological effects of THC, in rats. Pharmacological properties of cannabidiol in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: Cannabidiol CBD represents a new promising drug due to a wide spectrum of pharmacological actions.
In order to relate CBD clinical efficacy to its pharmacological mechanisms of action, we performed a bibliographic search on PUBMED about all clinical studies investigating the use of CBD as a treatment of psychiatric symptoms.
In conclusion, current evidences suggest that CBD has the ability to reduce psychotic, anxiety and withdrawal symptoms by means of several hypothesised pharmacological properties. However, further studies should include larger randomised controlled samples and investigate the impact of CBD on biological measures in order to correlate CBD 's clinical effects to potential modifications of neurotransmitters signalling and structural and functional cerebral changes. Cannabidiol as potential treatment in refractory pediatric epilepsy.
In recent years there has been great scientific and public interest focused on the therapeutic potential of compounds derived from cannabis for the treatment of refractory epilepsy in children.
From in vitro and in vivo studies on animal models, cannabidiol CBD appears to be a promising anticonvulsant drug with a favorable side-effect profile. In humans, CBD efficacy and safety is not supported by well-designed trials and its use has been described by anecdotal reports. It will be necessary to investigate CBD safety, pharmacokinetics and interaction with other anti-epileptic drugs AEDs alongside performing double-blinded placebo-controlled trials in order to obtain conclusive data on its efficacy and safety in children.
Does cannabidiol have a role in the treatment of schizophrenia? Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder which places a significant emotional and economic strain on the individual and society-at-large. Unfortunately, currently available therapeutic strategies do not provide adequate relief and some patients are treatment-resistant. In this regard, cannabidiol CBD , a non-psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa, has shown significant promise as a potential antipsychotic for the treatment of schizophrenia.
However, there is still considerable uncertainty about the mechanism of action of CBD as well as the brain regions which are thought to mediate its putative antipsychotic effects. We argue that further research on CBD is required to fast-track its progress to the clinic and in doing so, we may generate novel insights into the neurobiology of schizophrenia.
Cannabidiol normalizes caspase 3, synaptophysin, and mitochondrial fission protein DNM1L expression levels in rats with brain iron overload: We have recently shown that chronic treatment with cannabidiol CBD was able to recover memory deficits induced by brain iron loading in a dose-dependent manner in rats. Brain iron accumulation is implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's, and has been related to cognitive deficits in animals and human subjects.
Deficits in synaptic energy supply have been linked to neurodegenerative diseases, evidencing the key role played by mitochondria in maintaining viable neural cells and functional circuits. It has also been shown that brains of patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases have increased expression of apoptosisrelated proteins and specific DNA fragmentation. Here, we have analyzed the expression level of brain proteins involved with mitochondrial fusion and fission mechanisms DNM1L and OPA1 , the main integral transmembrane protein of synaptic vesicles synaptophysin , and caspase 3, an apoptosis-related protein, to gain a better understanding of the potential of CBD in restoring the damage caused by iron loading in rats.
We found that CBD rescued iron-induced effects, bringing hippocampal DNM1L, caspase 3, and synaptophysin levels back to values comparable to the control group. Our results suggest that iron affects mitochondrial dynamics, possibly trigging synaptic loss and apoptotic cell death and indicate that CBD should be considered as a potential molecule with memory-rescuing and neuroprotective properties to be used in the treatment of cognitive deficits observed in neurodegenerative disorders.
We have previously reported that cannabidiol CBD lowers the incidence of diabetes in young non-obese diabetes-prone NOD female mice. In the present study we show that administration of CBD to 11—14 week old female NOD mice, which are either in a latent diabetes stage or with initial symptoms of diabetes, ameliorates the manifestations of the disease.
In addition, the level of the proinflammatory cytokine IL produced by splenocytes was significantly reduced, whereas the level of the anti-inflammatory IL was significantly elevated following CBD -treatment. Histological examination of the pancreata of CBD -treated mice revealed more intact islets than in the controls.
Our data strengthen our previous assumption that CBD , known to be safe in man, can possibly be used as a therapeutic agent for treatment of type 1 diabetes. Controlled clinical trial of cannabidiol in Huntington's disease. Based on encouraging preliminary findings, cannabidiol CBD , a major nonpsychotropic constituent of Cannabis, was evaluated for symptomatic efficacy and safety in 15 neuroleptic-free patients with Huntington's Disease HD.
A comparison of the effects of CBD and placebo on chorea severity and other therapeutic outcome variables, and on a Cannabis side effect inventory, clinical lab tests and other safety outcome variables, indicated no significant p greater than 0.
Cannabidiol promotes browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Recruitment of the brown-like phenotype in white adipocytes browning and activation of existing brown adipocytes are currently being investigated as a means to combat obesity. Thus, a wide variety of dietary agents that contribute to browning of white adipocytes have been identified.
The present study was designed to investigate the effects of cannabidiol CBD , a major nonpsychotropic phytocannabinoid of Cannabis sativa, on induction of browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
These data suggest possible roles for CBD in browning of white adipocytes, augmentation of lipolysis, thermogenesis, and reduction of lipogenesis. In conclusion, the current data suggest that CBD plays dual modulatory roles in the form of inducing the brown-like phenotype as well as promoting lipid metabolism.
Thus, CBD may be explored as a potentially promising therapeutic agent for the prevention of obesity. The current study examined sex differences in CBD modulation of THC-induced antinociception, hypolocomotion, and metabolism. These results suggest that CBD may enhance THC's antinociceptive and hypolocomotive effects, primarily prolonging THC's duration of action; however, these effects were small and inconsistent across experiments.
Inhibition of colon carcinogenesis by a standardized Cannabis sativa extract with high content of cannabidiol. Colon cancer is a major public health problem. Cannabis-based medicines are useful adjunctive treatments in cancer patients. CBD botanical drug substance, on colorectal cancer cell proliferation and in experimental models of colon cancer in vivo.
In vivo, the effect of CBD BDS was examined on the preneoplastic lesions aberrant crypt foci , polyps and tumours induced by the carcinogenic agent azoxymethane AOM as well as in a xenograft model of colon cancer in mice.
The results may have some clinical relevance for the use of Cannabis-based medicines in cancer patients. The cannabis constituent cannabidiol CBD possesses anxiolytic and antipsychotic properties. During treatment and 48 h after withdrawal we measured behaviour, whole blood CBD concentrations and autoradiographic receptor binding. Altered pharmacokinetics in mutant mice could not explain our findings since no genotype differences existed in CBD blood concentrations.
Here we demonstrate that Nrg1 modulates acute and long-term neurobehavioural effects of CBD , which does not reverse the schizophrenia-relevant phenotypes. Distinct neurobehavioural effects of cannabidiol in transmembrane domain neuregulin 1 mutant mice. The surgical technique has evolved since then and several studies have concluded that Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration LCBDE procedures are superior to sequential endolaparoscopic treatment in terms of both clinical and economical outcomes, Cuschieri et al.
Here we present our series from January to March In a retrospective study from January to March , we performed laparoscopic cholecystectomies, out of which patients underwent intraoperative cholangiogram and patients eventually had CBD exploration. Choledochoduodenosotomy was done in 2 patients. Patients were followed regularly at six monthly intervals with a range of six months to three years of follow-up.
There were no major complications like bile leak or pancreatitis. There were no cases of retained stones or intraabdominal infection. Primary closure of choledochotomy in select patients is a. Beyond the CB1 Receptor: Is Cannabidiol the Answer for Disorders of Motivation? The Cannabis sativa plant has been used to treat various physiological and psychiatric conditions for millennia. Current research is focused on isolating potentially therapeutic chemical constituents from the plant for use in the treatment of many central nervous system disorders.
Of particular interest is the primary nonpsychoactive constituent cannabidiol CBD. Here we review preclinical and clinical data outlining the therapeutic efficacy of CBD for the treatment of motivational disorders such as drug addiction, anxiety, and depression.
Across studies, findings suggest promising treatment effects and potentially overlapping mechanisms of action for CBD in these disorders and indicate the need for further systematic investigation of the viability of CBD as a psychiatric pharmacotherapy. Cannabidiol CBD is the main non-psychotropic component of the glandular hairs of Cannabis sativa. It displays a plethora of actions including anticonvulsive, sedative, hypnotic, antipsychotic, antiinflammatory and neuroprotective properties.
However, it is well established that CBD produces its biological effects without exerting significant intrinsic activity upon cannabinoid receptors. For this reason, CBD lacks the unwanted psychotropic effects characteristic of marijuana derivatives, so representing one of the bioactive constituents of Cannabis sativa with the highest potential for therapeutic use.
The present review reports the pharmacological profile of CBD and summarizes results from preclinical and clinical studies utilizing CBD , alone or in combination with other phytocannabinoids, for the treatment of a number of CNS disorders. Thapa, Dinesh; Cairns, Elizabeth A. Abstract Background and Purpose: Corneal injury can result in dysfunction of corneal nociceptive signaling and corneal sensitization. Activation of the endocannabinoid system has been reported to be analgesic and anti-inflammatory.
Gamma-irradiation enhances apoptosis induced by cannabidiol , a non-psychotropic cannabinoid, in cultured HL myeloblastic leukemia cells. Apoptosis was determined by staining with bisBenzimide and propidium iodide. Human monocytes from normal individuals were resistant to either cannabinoids or gamma-irradiation.
Caspase-3 activation was observed after the cannabinoid treatment, and may represent a mechanism for the apoptosis. Our data suggest a possible new approach to treatment of AML. Pharmacology and potential therapeutic role in epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Objective To present a summary of current scientific evidence about the cannabinoid, cannabidiol CBD with regards to their relevance to epilepsy and other selected neuropsychiatric disorders.
Methods We summarize the presentations from a conference in which invited participants reviewed relevant aspects of the physiology, mechanisms of action, pharmacology and data from studies with animal models and human subjects. Results Cannabis has been used to treat disease since ancient times.
CBD is anticonvulsant in many acute animal models but there is limited data in chronic models. CBD has neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. CBD appears to be well tolerated in humans but small and methodologically limited studies of CBD in human epilepsy have been inconclusive. More recent anecdotal reports of high-ratio CBD: Significance CBD bears investigation in epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders, including anxiety, schizophrenia, addiction and neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.
However, we lack data from well-powered double-blind randomized, controlled studies on the efficacy of pure CBD for any disorder. Initial dose-tolerability and double-blind randomized, controlled studies focusing on target intractable epilepsy populations such as patients with.
Clinical experience with THC: CBD oromucosal spray in patients with multiple sclerosis-related spasticity. Over a month timeframe, THC: CBD spray was initiated in patients. Mean follow-up was 9 months. CBD spray was used as add-on therapy in 95 patients and as monotherapy in 25 patients to achieve best-possible therapeutic results. CBD spray for less than 60 days. Main reasons for treatment discontinuation were: No new safety signals were noted with THC: CBD spray during the evaluation period.
CBD spray was effective and well tolerated as add-on therapy or as monotherapy in a relevant proportion of patients with resistant MS spasticity. Cannabidiol effects in the prepulse inhibition disruption induced by amphetamine.
The information processing appears to be deficient in schizophrenia. Prepulse inhibition PPI , which measures the inhibition of a motor response by a weak sensory event, is considered particularly useful to understand the biology of information processing in schizophrenia patients. Drugs that facilitate dopaminergic neurotransmission such as amphetamine induce PPI disruption in human and rodents.
Clinical and neurobiological findings suggest that the endocannabinoid system and cannabinoids may be implicated in the pathophysiology and treatment of schizophrenia. Cannabidiol CBD , a non-psychotomimetic constituent of the Cannabis sativa plant, has also been reported to have potential as an antipsychotic. Since one possible mechanism of CBD action is the facilitation of endocannabinoid-mediated neurotransmission through anandamide, we tested the effects of an anandamide hydrolysis inhibitor URB in the amphetamine-induced PPI disruption.
Pretreatment with CBD attenuated the amphetamine-disruptive effects on PPI test after systemic or intra-accumbens administration. Similar effects were also found with the inhibitor of anandamide hydrolysis. These results corroborate findings indicating that CBD induces antipsychotic-like effects. In addition, they pointed to the nucleus accumbens as a possible site of these effects. The increase of anandamide availability may be enrolled in the CBD effects. THC for the treatment of multiple sclerosis.
THC dose ratio tested. THC dose ratios of 1: When administered alone, CBD did not produce effects in either procedure. These results suggest that CBD , when administered with THC at therapeutically relevant ratios, may ameliorate aversive effects e. While this effect may be beneficial for therapeutic usage of a CBD: Cannabidiol reverses the reduction in social interaction produced by low dose Delta 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol in rats.
While Delta 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol THC is the main psychoactive constituent of the cannabis plant, a non-psychoactive constituent is cannabidiol CBD. CBD has been implicated as a potential treatment of a number of disorders including schizophrenia and epilepsy and has been included with THC in a 1: This study investigated the effect of THC and CBD , alone or in combination, on some objective behaviours of rats in the open field.
Pairs of rats were injected with CBD or vehicle followed by THC or vehicle and behaviour in the open field was assessed for 10 min. However, the combination of high dose CBD and high dose THC significantly reduced social interaction between rat pairs, as well as producing a significant decrease in locomotor activity.
Cannabidiol CBD , one of the most abundant Cannabis sativa-derived compounds, has been implicated with neuroprotective effect in several human pathologies.
Until now, no undesired side effects have been associated with CBD. In this study, we evaluated CBD 's neuroprotective effect in terminal differentiation mature and during neuronal differentiation neuronal developmental toxicity model of the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line. A dose-response curve was performed to establish a sublethal dose of CBD with antioxidant activity 2. Moreover, no difference in antioxidant potential and neurite density was observed.
When SH-SY5Y cells undergoing neuronal differentiation were exposed to CBD , no differences in antioxidant potential and neurite density were observed. However, CBD potentiated the neurotoxicity induced by all redox-active drugs tested. Our data indicate that 2. Several studies have indicated that CBD displays neurobiological effects, including wake promotion. Moreover, experimental evidence has shown that injections of CBD enhance wake-related compounds, such as monoamines dopamine, serotonin, epinephrine, and norepinephrine.
However, no clear evidence is available regarding the effects of CBD on additional wake-related neurochemicals such as acetylcholine ACh. Altogether, these data demonstrate that CBD increases ACh levels in a brain region related to wake control. This study is the first to show the effects of ACh levels in CBD -treated rats and suggests that the basal forebrain might be a site of action of CBD for wakefulness modulation.
The aim of this study was to compare the patterns of grey and white matter atrophy on MRI in autopsy confirmed progressive supranuclear palsy PSP and corticobasal degeneration CBD , and to determine whether the patterns vary depending on the clinical syndrome. PSP and CBD subjects were also subdivided into those with a dominant dementia or extrapyramidal syndrome.
PSP subjects showed brainstem atrophy with involvement of the cortex and underlying white matter. Frontoparietal grey and subcortical grey matter atrophy occurred in CBD. When subdivided, PSP subjects with an extrapyramidal syndrome had more brainstem atrophy and less cortical atrophy than CBD subjects with an extrapyramidal syndrome. PSP subjects with a dementia syndrome had more subcortical white matter atrophy than CBD subjects with a dementia syndrome. Evidence for the efficacy and effectiveness of THC- CBD oromucosal spray in symptom management of patients with spasticity due to multiple sclerosis.
This article reviews the current evidence for the efficacy and safety, with dizziness and fatigue as the most common treatment-related adverse events, being mostly mild to moderate in severity. Results from both randomized controlled phase III studies involving about, MS patients or patient-years and recently published studies on everyday clinical practice involving more than patients or more than, patient-years are presented.
The aim of this review is to describe the historical development of research on cannabidiol. After the elucidation of the chemical structure of cannabidiol in , the initial studies showed that cannabidiol was unable to mimic the effects of Cannabis.
In the 's the number of publications on cannabidiol reached a first peak, having the research focused mainly on the interaction with delta9-THC and its antiepileptic and sedative effects. The following two decades showed lower degree of interest, and the potential therapeutic properties of cannabidiol investigated were mainly the anxiolytic, antipsychotic and on motor diseases effects.
The last five years have shown a remarkable increase in publications on cannabidiol mainly stimulated by the discovery of its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and neuroprotective effects. These studies have suggested a wide range of possible therapeutic effects of cannabidiol on several conditions, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, cerebral ischemia, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, other inflammatory diseases, nausea and cancer.
In the last 45 years it has been possible to demonstrate that CBD has a wide range of pharmacological effects, many of which being of great therapeutic interest, but still waiting to be confirmed by clinical trials.
Cannabidiol exerts sebostatic and antiinflammatory effects on human sebocytes. The endocannabinoid system ECS regulates multiple physiological processes, including cutaneous cell growth and differentiation. Here, we explored the effects of the major nonpsychotropic phytocannabinoid of Cannabis sativa, - - cannabidiol CBD , on human sebaceous gland function and determined that CBD behaves as a highly effective sebostatic agent. Administration of CBD to cultured human sebocytes and human skin organ culture inhibited the lipogenic actions of various compounds, including arachidonic acid and a combination of linoleic acid and testosterone, and suppressed sebocyte proliferation via the activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid-4 TRPV4 ion channels.
Collectively, our findings suggest that, due to the combined lipostatic, antiproliferative, and antiinflammatory effects, CBD has potential as a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of acne vulgaris. The astrocytes have gained in recent decades an enormous interest as a potential target for neurotherapies, due to their essential and pleiotropic roles in brain physiology and pathology. The cannabinoid system and its ligands have been shown to interact and affect activities of astrocytes.
Cannabidiol CBD is the main non-psychotomimetic cannabinoid derived from Cannabis. Here, we attempt to sum up the current findings on the effects of CBD on astrocyte activity, and in this way on central nervous system CNS functions, across various tested models and neuropathologies. The collected data shows that increased astrocyte activity is suppressed in the presence of CBD in models of ischemia, Alzheimer-like and Multiple-Sclerosis-like neurodegenerations, sciatic nerve injury, epilepsy, and schizophrenia.
Moreover, CBD has been shown to decrease proinflammatory functions and signaling in astrocytes. Cannabis, cannabidiol , and epilepsy--from receptors to clinical response. Recreational cannabis use in adults with epilepsy is widespread. The use of cannabis for medicinal purposes is also becoming more prevalent. For this purpose, various preparations of cannabis of varying strengths and content are being used. There are testimonials all around the web.
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Upon opening the item, refrigerate so which you can receive a fresh effect each time you use. From its earliest known use in Ancient China to today, our awareness of potential medical marijuana uses has grown. In the United States, cannabis was widely utilized as a patented medicine during the 19th and early 20th centuries. With that growing acknowledgement of cannabis and its therapeutic effects, attitudes toward the substance have shifted dramatically.
This has led a significant expansion in legal access throughout the United States and the globe. Medical marijuana refers to using the cannabis plant or its extracts to treat symptoms of an illness or a disease. Many of these compounds, particularly a type of active chemical compound called cannabinoids, have shown to have medicinal properties beneficial for treating or managing various ailments.
Food and Drug Administration FDA has yet to recognize or approve marijuana as a food or medicine, but the agency has approved some cannabis-based medications for use in the U.
Many state lawmakers and voters recognize the various medical marijuana benefits. More than 60 percent of states and territories in the U. Each state has their own regulations on medical marijuana uses, with many requiring that patients be first diagnosed with particular qualifying conditions. People have used marijuana to address health conditions for at least 3, years, and throughout history many civilizations have documented their medical marijuana uses.
Cannabis also has a long history in America, and prior to prohibition was considered a viable treatment option in the U. Over the past 25 years, the medical use of marijuana has started to return and today there are thought to be roughly 3. In the world of medical marijuana uses, there is still a lot to discover about medical marijuana benefits. Researchers are regularly seeking to learn more about cannabis and its potential for improving symptoms, treating ailments, and enhancing the quality of life among those diagnosed with an illness or disease.
By far the most common question from those interested in cannabis and its therapeutic potential is: What is medical marijuana used for? Today there are over 50 different conditions or symptoms that are legally treatable with medical marijuana.
Medical cannabis has the potential to systematically replace multi-billion dollar medication industries around the world, according to a pair of recent studies.
Here we summarize various medical marijuana uses, exploring why people use medical marijuana and how it benefits them. By far the most common reason people use medical marijuana is for pain management. Chronic and severe pain accounts for nearly two-thirds of all medical cannabis patients in the U. The benefits of medical marijuana for pain have been widely studied, with research showing that cannabis is effective for reducing both neuropathic and nociceptive pain.
Even refractory pain situations, where the discomfort is resistant to other traditional medications, have shown to be treatable with medical marijuana. A survey completed only a few years ago found that medical marijuana treatments elicited a 64 percent drop in average pain.
Nearly all of the states that allow medicinal cannabis acknowledge the benefits of medical marijuana for pain and include it as a qualifying condition. For the estimated 5. By binding with dopamine receptors , cannabis-derived cannabinoids reduce the effects of disease-related drops in dopamine that result in loss of motor control. Cannabinoid effects on the body also appear to trigger neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory responses, which can slow the progression of both neurodegenerative disorders.
Epilepsy affects an estimated 3. For the estimated 1. Medical marijuana is commonly recommended by doctors to cancer patients to help curtail the nausea, pain, and weight loss that often come about following cancer treatments.
Studies also indicate that cannabinoid effects stimulate a series of chemical reactions that can, in some cases, suppress tumor growth. For the estimated , people in the U. Research also suggests that medical marijuana may be able to slow the progression of MS by helping modulate the inflammatory reaction and assisting in neuroregeneration. Medical marijuana can help PTSD patients manage anxiety, fear, and sleep problems after experiencing a traumatic event.
By modulating the release of a neurotransmitter, cannabis-derived cannabinoids can help block fear memory formation and help regulate the stress response. Outside of these conditions, there are many other medical marijuana uses. Doctors commonly recommend medical marijuana to:.
The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in published a study investigating medical marijuana uses. The rigorous and weighty page report summarized research-backed medical marijuana benefits and recommended that more studied needed to be done to more thoroughly understand cannabinoid effects.
Even more medical marijuana uses are available to explore on our education page. So exactly how does medical marijuana work?
Exploring medical marijuana uses is incomplete without an explanation of cannabis-derived cannabinoids and their effects. The medical benefits of weed are directly related to the plus cannabinoids found in cannabis, some of which have been found to have therapeutically beneficial properties. Once absorbed, these active chemical compounds alter the release of neurotransmitters in the brain by acting on cannabinoid receptors , eliciting various effects. Cannabinoid receptors are located on cells throughout the body.
The ECS is responsible for keeping a wide array of functions in balance. While scientists only discovered cannabinoids decades ago, thousands of studies have been already completed on cannabinoids effects, and new studies on medical marijuana benefits are regularly being published. The body produces its own cannabinoid chemicals, called endocannabinoids. Through their interaction with cannabinoid receptors, these chemicals play a role in regulating memory, concentration, mood, appetite, sleep habits, immune system response, pain sensation, and more.
As the research findings above suggest, these health benefits of cannabinoids can help treat symptoms of illness and other conditions. Many of the medicinal benefits of marijuana have to do with it encouraging a well operating ECS. Medical marijuana is only legally available to patients in U. Thankfully, today a majority of Americans live in a state where marijuana can be used as medicine. While marijuana in all forms remains continues to be illegal at the federal level, 32 states and Washington, D.
Medical marijuana laws vary widely state by state, sometimes even from city to city. The variations include the forms of marijuana legally available, the percentage of tetrahydrocannabinol THC allowed, and conditions that qualify patients for a state-issued medical marijuana card. Some states allow for registered medical marijuana patients to buy cannabis from licensed dispensaries and cultivate their own cannabis plants at home. Others allow patients to purchase cannabis through dispensaries, but not partake in home cultivation.
A few only allow home cultivation. More Americans than ever now believe there are viable reasons why medical marijuana should be legal under federal law.
With a growing body of research revealing the benefits of medical marijuana uses of the cannabis plant to treat conditions, diseases, and symptoms, 94 percent of Americans are now in favor of legal medical marijuana.
Medical Marijuana Law or visit our education page and scroll to find your state. We also provide tips on how to discuss medical marijuana with your doctor and getting a medical marijuana card. There is always more to learn about potential medical marijuana uses and the benefits of cannabinoids effects through our education page. It seems that CBD is everywhere you look these days.
Media and news outlets have caught the CBD wave, and have helped spread the word about the all-natural cannabinoid and its benefits. Cannabis has a long history, but only over the last decade or so has CBD oil surged in popularity as a dietary supplement to promote wellness. With so much misinformation on the internet about CBD, a common misconception is that CBD only comes from one type of cannabis plant. In reality, CBD is found throughout the stalks, flowers, stems, leaves and seeds of both hemp and marijuana.
Yes, hemp and marijuana can be sources of CBD. However, marijuana is naturally lower in CBD than THC, or tetrahydrocannabinol, the intoxicating compound known for its euphoric properties.
What does this CBD fact mean? Hemp cultivars also grow much faster than marijuana, allowing farmers to plant multiple hemp crops a season for a more environmentally sustainable and conscious CBD product. With that said, there are thousands of unique varieties of hemp, and not all contain the same percentages of CBD. CBD rightfully garners much of the attention in the cannabis industry due to its natural benefits. But, did you know that it is just one of more than cannabinoids scientists have so far discovered?
Outside of these two well-researched compounds, however, are dozens more present at low levels. Not all cannabis contains the same amount of cannabidiol. There are now thousands of unique cannabis strains available to consumers. On a chemical level, these strains differ in their make-up of their cannabinoid content, providing various CBD concentration options. Thanks to crossbreeding cannabis growers are able to cultivate cannabis plants that contain high levels of CBD.
These high-CBD strains, also referred to as CBD-rich strains, have become a popular choice for anyone interested in the natural effects of cannabinoids while maintaining a clear head. When Medical Marijuana, Inc. This CBD fact is true: CBD is non-intoxicating and has shown to have no serious side effects , which is why many feel comfortable to buy CBD oil for all of their family members, including children and seniors.
In doing so, CBD encourages balance in the body and its functions. Russo went on to explain: This is one of the most important CBD facts you learn today: The human body does not care where the molecule comes from. An easy way to understand this CBD fact is to consider vitamin C.
No matter whether your body absorbs it through an orange or a lemon, it will treat and use the water-soluble vitamin the same way. While it is true that the percentage of CBD in hemp plants by dry weight is generally lower than the percentage of CBD in some specially bred marijuana plants, once CBD oil is extracted from the plant, this difference becomes negligible. A relatively new theory from Dr. Russo, mentioned earlier, speculates that supplementing the body with plant-based cannabinoids like CBD could possibly be beneficial for addressing the nutritional deficiency.
This theory, called the clinical endocannabinoid deficiency syndrome CECD , attempts to explain why in some cases the endocannabinoid system is unable to properly keep the body balanced. It proposes that a deficiency in cannabinoids can lead to a dysfunction in the endocannabinoid system, leading to health issues.
Eliminating hemp from the diet may have contributed to cannabinoid deficiency issues. Of all the CBD facts, this one may surprise you the most. The entourage effect, first introduced in by renowned researchers Raphael Mechoulam and S.
Ben-Shabat, suggests that the sum total of all the chemical compounds in cannabis — including CBD and the other hundreds of plant compounds — act synergistically to provide a more powerful effect. In other words, these scientists and others believe that consuming full-spectrum CBD oil offers greater natural wellness properties than taking isolated CBD compounds alone.
Hemp contains more than just CBD. It is made up of plus active compounds, including cannabinoids, flavonoids, and terpenes, as well as essential vitamins and minerals, fatty acids, fiber, protein, and chlorophyll.
Many people first incorporate CBD into their lives once facing health problems, but CBD offers botanical properties that are beneficial for anyone interested in promoting wellness. Hemp-derived CBD oil also supports the maintenance of a complete and healthy diet. CBD oil also contains protein, fatty acids, and other dietary nutrients critical for keeping your body running at its best.
For healthy people, supplementing the endocannabinoid system, the largest self-regulatory system, with plant-based cannabinoids like CBD is a potential way to maintain optimal health.
The balancing effects of CBD combined with the nutritional content of hemp oil will help ensure your body is given what it needs for peak performance each day.
Like us, many of our loved pets can benefit from the natural balancing properties of CBD. All mammals, including dogs, cats, horses, and more, have an endocannabinoid system, the bodily system with which cannabinoids interact. CBD, provided it is derived from hemp, is federally legal in the United States.
For those curious about cannabinoids and CBD oil facts, this is a big deal. While states can regulate hemp and hemp CBD as they choose, the new federal law will make many consumers familiar with CBD oil benefits more willing to try the variety of CBD oil products that are available to buy. Nearly everyone in the country can legally shop for CBD oil products and have their order delivered right to their doorstep. Learn more cannabidiol facts through our education page. To start incorporating the natural wellness benefits of CBD oil products into your routine, visit the Medical Marijuana, Inc.
This speaker event is hosted with the goal of sharing innovative wellness topics with the Joyworks local community. The first event of the series, featuring Dr. Titus, is scheduled for January 22, , from 4: Titus giving his presentation on the wellness benefits of cannabinoids like CBD and how savvy consumers can take advantage of these benefits with daily use CBD supplements derived from hemp.
Titus, giving attendees the opportunity to learn more about CBD and dispel any myths they may have heard. Joyworks is a socially conscious lifestyle brand with the mission to help people choose joy and lead a life of joy through content, products, and charitable giving. The company strives to inspire compassion, human rights, education, the environment, and animal stewardship.
It also promotes health, fitness, and mindfulness while empowering people to support each other and be their best selves. Titus, one of the most respected pioneers in the industry. Titus is a well-known speaker in the hemp CBD, cannabis, and wellness industries, presenting annually at many national and global conferences, including the following in Other speakers in the series include senior care advisors and wellness experts.
You can find the latest Medical Marijuana, Inc. Hemp hair care products like hemp shampoo can offer great benefits to you and your hair, including strengthening and moisturizing your hair and promoting hair growth. That is because hemp shampoo contains many dietary nutrients, like vitamins, minerals, proteins, omega fatty acids, and more, that support healthy hair. They also often contain all-natural ingredients, like peppermint oil, almond oil, and lavender oil and are free of artificial dyes, parabens, and fragrances.
Keep reading to learn more about adding a hemp shampoo to your bath routine is great for your hair. Hemp is a member of the Cannabis sativa L species of plant. Because it thrives under natural conditions, hemp is typically grown outside, growing sturdy and tall, up to 2 to 4 meters in height, without the need for herbicides or pesticides.
That keeps these harmful chemicals out of your hair care products. For cannabis to be considered hemp, it must contain no more than 0. THC is the active compound in marijuana that causes its intoxicating effect. Instead, hemp is naturally higher in cannabidiol CBD , one of over cannabinoids that have so far been identified in the cannabis plant. Because hemp is an efficient bioaccumulator, it is important to avoid using chemical pesticides that can cause residual contamination of products.
Toxic pesticides sprayed on hemp plants can also leach into nearby soil and water sources, negatively impacting local biological environments. Like with pesticides, many growers avoid using herbicides because they can affect local biological communities or be absorbed by hemp plants and transferred residually to commercial products.
Due to its nutritional content, hemp can also be used as a food for both humans and livestock. Hemp seed and its derived oil are popular ingredients in recipes and can be used as a plant-based source of vital nutrients.
Because it is high in CBD, products made with hemp oil have become common sources for legal cannabinoids. Hemp has also found its way in bath and body products like hemp shampoos and conditioners, anti-aging skin care products, moisturizers and body lotions, and topical salves.
Hemp oil, when added as an ingredient to shampoo, provides many valuable nutrients and cannabinoids like CBD to help promote healthy hair. When hemp shampoo is massaged into the hair and scalp, they are exposed to these nourishing compounds. This interaction stimulates the endocannabinoid system, encouraging its efforts to keep the body balanced and functioning at its best. This includes healthy skin and hair. When hemp oil is infused into shampoo, the naturally balancing properties of CBD can address problems like damaged hair and dry scalp.
These products can be used throughout the week for healthier hair and scalp and protection against damage caused by free radicals, environmental exposure, and aging. In addition to CBD, hemp oil also contains a list of essential nutrients that help your hair look and feel its best. Hemp provides the following vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients to nourish and protect your hair and promote healthy growth. Vitamins A and D are both known to encourage hair growth. Vitamin D has been shown in research to potentially help create new hair follicles, the places from which hair grows.
Vitamin A keeps the scalp and hair moisturized by promoting proper oil production in hair follicles. B complex vitamins, including biotin, are also important to the construction process of hair.
B vitamins help bring oxygen and nutrients to the scalp and hair through an increase in red blood cells. Those worried about keeping their hair as they age should know that B vitamins may prevent hair loss.
Vitamin E increases hair growth and also helps prevent hair loss by stimulating capillaries and thus improving blood flow. It also works to prevent split ends and maintain the vibrancy of your hair color. The zinc your hair receives from hemp shampoo can help prevent zinc deficiency — a common factor in hair loss. When hemp oil is added to shampoo, it provides hair with a 3-to-1 ratio of omega-3 to omega-6 fatty acids, optimal for moisturizing, protecting, and enhancing your natural shine.
This process helps seal the ends of your hair, thereby maximizing moisture retention, which is effective for coating and conditioning your hair. Omega fatty acids also help to prevent water loss, improving its ability to act as a natural moisturizer. The all-natural botanical ingredients in hemp shampoo provide the nutrients your body needs to nourish and moisturize your hair, protect it from damage due to daily exposure, and promote growth, so it looks radiant and healthy everyday.
Traditional shampoos are often loaded with chemicals and artificial additives. Hemp shampoo offers a botanical, all-natural cleansing shampoo that is gentle enough for everyday use, but powerful enough to revive and rejuvenate even the driest of hair follicles. Infused with hemp oil, these hemp shampoos are free of artificial dyes and scents, parabens, and sulfates.
Most mass-produced shampoo hair care products contain preservatives and some mix of fragrance additives that are really just a disguise for chemicals, toxins, and sometimes even carcinogens. Skip these harsh chemicals and treat yourself right with an all-natural hemp shampoo. Some users go one step further and choose to create their own DIY hemp oil shampoo recipe. Popular natural ingredients in these at home recipes include hemp and castor oil shampoo, hemp and eucalyptus shampoo, and hemp and coconut oil shampoo.
This gives them complete control over what they put on their body when they wash their hair. You can add the benefits of hemp to your shower without much change to your routine.
To use a hemp shampoo, dispense an amount about the size of a quarter into the palm of your hand and work it into a lather in your damp hair. Hemp shampoo may not lather up as much as traditional shampoos. Focus on massaging it into your hair and scalp for best results. It is also a good idea to combine your use of a hemp shampoo with a hemp hair conditioner. Is you hair dry, brittle, and thin?
However, all hair types can benefit from the moisturizing, strengthening, and nourishing effects of hemp oil.
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