Dogs received each of two treatments: CBD oil (2 mg/kg) or placebo oil every 12 h. (IACUC) approved the study following the guidelines for animal use An initial investigation into single-dose oral pharmacokinetics was. Dogs received either CBD oil at 2 mg/kg every 12 hours or they received First of all, hemp plants contain less than percent Neither was I, so I asked my own lawyer to do some research for me on CBD oil use in pets. beneficial use in other animal species (ferrets, cats, dogs, monkeys) that have been reported in the scientific lit- erature. out and the results of these studies have led to the approval of manner the text will first be focused on the classifi-.
Use The in on CBD First Medicine Veterinary of Studies
Kinetic data was obtained from these dogs data not shown , however 11 of the 16 dogs had significant bilateral disease stifle, coxofemoral, or elbow making evaluation of peak vertical force or symmetry tenuous at best.
Unilateral disease in any of the aforementioned joints would be ideal to study the kinetic effects of this or similar extracts for pain relief leading to better objective outcomes. The population we used in our investigation was representative of dogs presenting in a clinical setting for management of OA and represents the typical OA patient.
Currently, NSAIDs are the primary treatment for OA and are associated with negative effects on the gastrointestinal tract and glomerular filtration 2. In the current study, no significant difference was noted in BUN, creatinine, or phosphorus between dogs treated with the CBD oil vs. A mild rise in creatinine from baseline was noted in both groups at weeks 2 and 4, the hydration status of the dogs was unknown; however changes in albumin sodium, and chloride were unchanged suggesting euhydration, and all creatinine values remained within the reference interval.
Increased ALP activity is fairly sensitive for hepatobiliary changes in this age group, but not specific. Increased ALP activity noted in nine dogs in the CBD treatment group may be an effect of the hemp extract attributed to the induction of cytochrome p mediated oxidative metabolism of the liver reported previously with prolonged exposure to cannabis 36 — Other causes of cholestasis, increased endogenous corticosteroid release from stress, or a progression of regenerative nodular hyperplasia of the liver cannot be ruled out.
Without concurrent significant rise in ALT in the CBD treatment to support hepatocellular damage, or biopsy for further clarification, the significance is uncertain.
As such, it may be prudent to monitor liver enzyme values especially ALP while dogs are receiving industrial hemp products until controlled long term safety studies are published. A recent survey reported that pet owners endorse hemp based treats and products because of perceived improvement in numerous ailments, as hemp products were moderately to very helpful medicinally Some of the conditions thought to be relieved by hemp consumption were: One immunohistochemical study suggested that cannabinoids could protect against the effects of immune-mediated and inflammatory allergic disorders in dogs 40 whereas another uncontrolled study suggested that CBD has anticonvulsant and anti-epileptic properties in dogs There were some dogs with incidental rises in alkaline phosphatase that could be related to the treatment.
Further long-term studies with larger populations are needed to identify long-term effects of CBD rich industrial hemp treatment, however short term effects appear to be positive. L-JG was responsible for data analysis and interpretation, drafting of the manuscript and approval of the submitted manuscript. JB was responsible for the conception of the study and manuscript writing and revisions.
CF was responsible for acquisition of data and manuscript revision. WS was responsible for pharmacokinetic evaluation and revision of the manuscript. SM was responsible for statistical analysis, data analysis and revision of the manuscript.
LW was responsible for laboratory work including liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. HB was responsible for interpretation of the blood work and manuscript revision. EB was responsible for acquisition of data, and data analysis.
JW was responsible for the conception of study, supervised data collection, statistical analysis, and manuscript editing. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
The authors would like to thank Renee C. Staffeld and Danny Sack for data entry. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Front Vet Sci v. Published online Jul Lauri-Jo Gamble , 1 Jordyn M. Boesch , 1 Christopher W. Frye , 1 Wayne S. Berthelsen , 1 and Joseph J. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This article was submitted to Veterinary Surgery and Anesthesiology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Veterinary Science.
Received Feb 25; Accepted Jul 2. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s and the copyright owner s are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.
No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Introduction Routine nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug NSAID treatments, though efficacious, may not provide adequate relief of pain due to osteoarthritis OA and might have potential side effects that preclude its use, particularly in geriatric patients with certain comorbidities, such as kidney or gastrointestinal pathologies 1 — 4.
Pharmacokinetics An initial investigation into single-dose oral pharmacokinetics was performed with 4 beagles 3. Extraction of CBD from canine serum and mass spectrometry analysis CBD was extracted from canine serum using a combination of protein precipitation and liquid-liquid extraction using n-hexane as previously described 20 , with minor modifications for microflow ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography UHPLC. Inclusion and exclusion criteria for the clinical trial The study population consisted of client-owned dogs presenting to Cornell University Hospital for Animals for evaluation and treatment of a lameness due to OA.
Clinical trial The study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, owner and veterinarian double-blind, cross-over trial. Statistical analysis Initial power analysis was performed to assess number of dogs needed for this study as a cross over design with a power set 0.
Results Pharmacokinetics Pharmacokinetics demonstrated that CBD half-life of elimination median was 4. Open in a separate window.
Dogs included in the clinical trial Twenty-two client-owned dogs with clinically and radiographically confirmed evidence of osteoarthritis were recruited. Table 2 Characteristics of dogs enrolled in a placebo-controlled study investigating the effects of CBD on osteoarthritis.
Table 3 Canine Brief Pain Inventory Pain and Activity questions and Hudson Scale mean and standard deviation; lameness, weight-bearing and pain scores median and ranges at each time for cannabidiol CBD and placebo oils. Table 4 Serum chemistry values of dogs receiving CBD or placebo oils. Discussion To date, an objective evaluation of the pharmacokinetics of a commercially available industrial hemp product after oral dosing in dogs is absent.
Author contributions L-JG was responsible for data analysis and interpretation, drafting of the manuscript and approval of the submitted manuscript. Conflict of interest statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank Renee C. Clinical pharmacology of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in dogs. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. Systematic review of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced adverse effects in dogs. J Vet Intern Med. Evaluation of adverse effects of long-term oral administration of carprofen, etodolac, flunixin meglumine, ketoprofen, and meloxicam in dogs.
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Expression of central and peripheral cannabinoid receptors in human immune tissues and leukocyte subpopulations. CB2 receptors in the brain: Characterisation of the cannabinoid receptor system in synovial tissue and fluid in patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Rapaka RS, Makriyannis A, editors.
Struct-Activ Relationsh Cannabin Zhornitsky S, Potvin S. Cannabidiol in humans - the quest for therapeutic targets. The nonpsychoactive component of marijuana cannabidiol modulates chemotaxis and IL and IL production of murine macrophages both in vivo and in vitro. Vanilloid TRPV1 receptor mediates the antihyperalgesic effect of the nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, cannabidiol, in a rat model of acute inflammation.
Antihyperalgesic effect of a Cannabis sativa extract in a rat model of neuropathic pain: Continuous intrathecal infusion of cannabinoid receptor agonists attenuates nerve ligation—induced pain in rats. Reg Anesth Pain Med. Antinociceptive effect of intrathecal cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55, in a rat bone tumor pain model.
The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis. J Pharm Biomed Anal. A novel microflow LC-MS method for the quantitation of endocannabinoids in serum. Shrivastava A, Gupta VB. Methods for the determination of limit of detection and limit of quantitation of the analytical methods. Power of treatment success definitions when the Canine Brief Pain Inventory is used to evaluate carprofen treatment for the control of pain and inflammation in dogs with osteoarthritis.
Ability of the canine brief pain inventory to detect response to treatment in dogs with osteoarthritis. J Am Vet Med Assoc. Assessing repeatability and validity of a visual analogue scale questionnaire for use in assessing pain and lameness in dogs. A randomized controlled trial of the efficacy of autologous platelet therapy for the treatment of osteoarthritis in dogs.
Applying multigroup confirmatory factor models for continuous outcomes to likert scale data complicates meaningful group comparisons. Carifio J, Perla R. Ten common misunderstandings, misconceptions, persistent myths and urban legends about likert scales and likert response formats and their antidotes. Pharmacokinetics of cannabidiol in dogs. Physicochemical properties, solubility, and protein binding of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol.
Comparative metabolism of cannabidiol in dog, rat and man. Conzemius mg, Evans RB. The trial is set up similar to the arthritis trial, except that each phase runs 12 weeks for a total of 24 weeks. A total of 27 dogs are participating in the two studies, and researchers are logging dosage, oil application, side effects and how to counteract those side effects. I look forward to seeing the published results of Dr.
Veterinary assessments, the pain inventory and the activity score showed a significant reduction in pain and an increase in activity in the dogs who received CBD treatment. The research team is currently conducting a similar trial with cats, and there are additional studies planned to evaluate the use of CBD oil in treating acute pain, behavior issues and during chemotherapy for pets with cancer.
My personal go-to authority on cannabidiol for pets is Dr. According to the pet owners he talks to, one of the most common applications for CBD is for anxiety and behavior issues in dogs. It seems to work very well for hyper dogs, and at low dosages, which is a good thing, since CBD products are expensive. Per Rob, studies on cannabinoids show they have a strong affinity for the brain and nervous tissue, and are able to easily cross the blood-brain barrier.
There is evidence that CBD is helpful for certain kinds of seizure disorders , as well as in closed-head trauma patients. When it comes to pain management, there's a significant amount of evidence that supports the use of CBD. And since cannabinoids work differently in the body than narcotics and also non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, they can be used together without the risk of drug interactions. Rob had a client with a dog who had osteosarcoma bone cancer and was in a great deal of pain.
The client decided to offer cannabinoids to his pet, and after just five days, the dog was once again able to begin putting weight on the leg with the tumor. There's also evidence CBD may shrink tumors. However, what people are discovering is that cannabinoids, like many Chinese herbs used to treat cancer, work well while in use, but if they're discontinued, the cancer returns.
Some background information from veterinary journal dvm Very recently, a lawyer consulted by dvm researched CBD oil use in pets, and everything he was able to find suggests that CBD oil manufactured and distributed for veterinary use is not illegal on either a federal or state level. I also recently talked with Dr. Celeste Yarnall about her use of CBD oil with her cats. You can find the interview and article here — it contains a wealth of information about the uses and benefits of cannabidiol for kitties.
Cannabinoid Product Shown to Increase Comfort, Activity in Dogs With OA
distinguished by initial capital letters. The World .. There is unsanctioned medical use of CBD based products with oils, supplements, gums, and .. Neuroimaging studies in humans and animals have shown that CBD has. Her first study sponsored by Applied Basic Science examined the "But those who used it for personal medical use, that was correlated, which makes College of Veterinary Medicine, tested the pharmacokinetics of CBD oil. sort of research behind the use of CBD in animals that he was turning needed to get approval to conduct the first-ever cannabis clinical trials.