Hemp, or industrial hemp typically found in the northern hemisphere, is a variety of the Another possible source of origin is Assyrian qunnabu, which was the name for a source of oil, fiber, and medicine in the 1st millennium BC. Cognates of. Hemp originated in Central Asia. Hemp cultivation for fibre was recorded in China as early as bce and was practiced in the Mediterranean countries of . Hemp is an incredibly versatile plant that has played an important role in the history of mankind. With the capability to be used to produce.
Hemp Origin of
Although hemp was a big part of early US history , attitude towards the crop started to change in the early s. When the US government increased its resolve to fight against drugs such as marijuana, hemp somehow got grouped with its cannabis cousin.
The Marijuana Tax Act of started the major decline of the hemp industry, as all hemp sales started to get heavily taxed on. There has been some controversy over this bill, as some have argued that this policy was aimed to reduce the size of the hemp industry in order to help the emerging plastic and nylon industries gain market share.
The United States reversed its stance in when they realized they needed hemp for the war effort. The Department of Agriculture started to heavily promote hemp and started publishing various benefits that hemp offered i. The peak of the hemp promotion was when the US government released a pro-hemp documentary called Hemp for Victory , which encouraged farmers throughout the Midwest and Southeast to grow hemp to support the war. This led to over , acres of hemp being planted during Shortly after this program, the US government went back to its original stance on hemp again and the industry continued to decline.
Other alternative sources, such as plastic and nylon, were encourages across multiple industries. This led to fewer farmers cultivating hemp and many hemp processors declaring bankruptcy. The last commercial hemp farm in the US was planted in Wisconsin in Hemp farming was eventually officially banned altogether in with the passage of the Controlled Substances Act in which hemp was included as a Schedule 1 drug, grouping this crop with drugs like heroin and LSD.
After almost 30 years of being forbidden, the US allowed businesses to import dietary hemp products in In the new century, application of hemp started to diversify as hemp fiber was imported to be used for clothing and textiles.
The first big win for US farmers came in , when two North Dakota farmers were granted hemp licenses—the first time in over 50 years. Building on this, in , the Farm Bill was signed into law, which allowed hemp cultivation as part of university research in states that permitted hemp farming. In the past year, momentum for hemp has continued to grow.
Many states have passed legislation to legalize hemp production under specific circumstances, such as research by academic or government institutions.
To date, more than 33 states have introduced a hemp bill and 21 states have approved one. This number is looking to continue to grow in the near future. In , the Industrial Hemp Farming Act was introduced at the federal level. If approved, this act will remove all restrictions and regulations on growing hemp. Although the Industrial Hemp Farming Act bill has yet to pass, it has been a big step forward for hemp in the United States. As states that are piloting hemp farming start harvesting their crops and see the impact it brings to its local economy, advocates of the hemp movement will have a stronger voice.
We hope to be part of this historical journey that will benefit our farmers, our health, and our environment. History of Hemp Learn about the journey of hemp as the oldest domesticated crop in the world to its prohibition in the US.
Key to Human Civilization. Loved by our Founding Fathers. Traces of hemp have been found in modern day China and Taiwan. Hemp rope is found in southern Russia BCE: Use of hemp continues to spread across northern Europe BCE: Hemp rope is found in Greece BCE: Fibre bundles often run the entire length of plants.
Approximately 25 bundles lie around stems, embedded in a ring of phloem parenchyma. The morphological descriptions of the 'biotypes' presented below are adapted from work by Schultes et al.
Cultivated for fibre, oil, and sometimes for drugs. Cultivated primarily for drugs but also used for fibre and oil. Plants small usually under 0. Plants short under 1. Cultivated for drugs, primarily hashish. The exact origin of hemp and its cultivation are not very clear; however, both historians and archaeologists agree that hemp was one of the first non-food crops to be cultivated.
It is thought that the plant probably originates from temperate central Asia. Authors from India favour an origin in the Himalayas, and Chinese authors propose sites along the Yangtze or Yellow rivers. There is strong archaeological evidence of the widespread use of hemp in China as an economic crop by around BC.
The vast majority of hemp fibre remains have been recovered from archaeological sites in China. The oldest written record of the use of hemp is a Chinese herbal from the third millennium BC, in which the medicinal use of hemp was described.
In a tomb in the Shaanxi Province of China in , archaeologists discovered a piece of paper containing hemp fibre, dated to —87 BC. This is considered to be the oldest piece of paper ever recovered. According to Vavilov, domestication of hemp probably occurred independently in several centres in northeast Asia around six millennia ago. In Egypt, the presence of hashish was found in the body tissues of mummies, dating back to about BC. The Greeks and Romans used hemp for the production of rope and coarse fabric.
They probably did not use it as a drug. During the s, servants from India carried seeds to Jamaica, and from here drug cultivation spread within the Gulf of Mexico.
There is considerable evidence for the diffusion of hemp in Europe and the Middle East. From the 16th to the 18th centuries, hemp was an important fibre crop in Europe and North America. Hemp production declined in the 19th and 20th centuries due to the large-scale cultivation of cotton, the advent of synthetic fibres and because the growing of hemp has been made illegal in many countries.
Today the distribution of hempcultivation is poorly documented. Nova Institute Karus et al. A list of major centres of cultivation for a minor crop such as hemp, is liable to change and become out of date. The drug cannabis, for instance, is grown almost globally the ODCCP cites countries , but few countries are consistent and have significant exportation.
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status.
Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. Early vegetative growth is often slow, but later growth may be quite rapid. Generally, canopy closure when leaves of adjacent plants mesh together and shade the soil occurs when fibre crops are approximately 50 cm in height.
Duke determined that optimal growth of C. It has a growth period of months, which is dependent on the latitude. Duke found that C. It flowers in the autumn, when the photoperiod drops below hours per day, depending on the variety and location. The plant is a nitrophile and requires much nutrients. Fibre crops require high levels of nitrogen and potassium, and in descending order of importance calcium, phosphorous and magnesium.
However, seed crops extract less potassium and more phosphorous from the soil, and drug crops have a high demand for phosphorus Frank and Rosenthal, Duke suggests that a soil pH of 6.
Fibre The long, strong, mildew-resistant fibre in hemp was traditionally used for rope, sails, tarpaulin, canvas bags, and carpets. Fine yarn can be spun for clothing, handbags, and other textiles. The low lignin level present in hemp fibre and hurds make these materials ideal for production of paper, fibreboard, composite wood products; or may be mixed with lime to create reinforced concrete. The fibres also serve as a fibreglass substitute, for pressed insulation and moulded panels for the car industry.
Hempseed The seed is technically an achene, a small, dry nut. For example field-grown crops yield an average of g seeds per plant, or about 22, seeds per plant McPartland et al. Approximately one-third of hempseed is oil, which is used in lighting, lubrication, soaps, detergents and cosmetic creams.
The fatty acids are quick drying and so hemp oil is useful for paints, varnishes and printing inks. Hemp oil can also be burned as a fuel.
In China, hempseed is commonly eaten, roasted or raw. Hemp oil contains a high percentage of essential fatty acids, it is therefore a valuable food supplement, and is useful in salad dressings and margarine. After the oil has been pressed out of the seed, the remaining seed cake is rich in protein and is suitable for use as a flour or an animal feed Pate, Two types of drug are produced: More resin is produced in tropical than in temperate climates.
Tetrahydrocannabinol THC is the primary active ingredient in the drug cannabis, but THC activity is modulated by dozens of other cannabinoids, terpenoids, and flavonoids. These compounds are synthesized in specialized leaf hairs called glandular trichomes, which are most dense on the surface of the leafy female flowers.
The upper head of the glands consists of secretory cells and is covered by a tough but distensible sheath. Air-dried herbal products such as marijuana, sinsemilla dominate the illicit market in North America, South America, and South Africa. For legitimate medicinal use, clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of the drug cannabis for treating many diseases and syndromes, including arthritis, muscle spasms, headaches, menstruation, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, anorexia, glaucoma, insomnia, anxiety, depression and even drug addiction.
In Western medicine, the use of C. In the past ten years, however, the drug has been re-introduced. Synthetic forms of THC are widely prescribed, and several pharmaceutical companies are currently developing cannabis plant extracts. The essential oil which contains no THC can be used in cosmetics, perfumes, food additives, and it may be fractionated for pharmaceutical use.
The oil has antibacterial, antifungal and pest-repellent properties, and is being developed as an organic pesticide McPartland, The First 12, Years. Botanik, Sorten, Anbau und Ernte. Botany, Varieties, Cultivation and Harvesting, ]. Sinsemilla Tips, 8 3: Advances in Hemp Research. University of Florida Press.
Frank M; Rosenthal E, Gettman J; Armentano P, The marijuana crop report. National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws,. Karus M; Kaup M, Use of natural fibres in the German automotive industry. International Hemp Association, 6 2: Study on markets and prices for natural fibres. UV-B radiation effects on photosynthesis, growth and cannabinoid production of two Cannabis sativa chemotypes.
The Origin and Use of Cannabis in Eastern Asia Linguistic-Cultural Implications
Due to almost a century of misinformation about Cannabis, the distinction between Cannabis and its two primary species — hemp and. Hemp's Humble Origins. “It would be wryly interesting if in human history the cultivation of marijuana led generally to the invention of agriculture, and thereby to. Is Origins' debut cannabis beauty product a marvelous marijuana-infused mask or just more hemp hype? Hello, (keep) Calm and carry on.