Due to almost a century of misinformation about Cannabis, the distinction between Cannabis and its two primary species — hemp and. Hemp, or industrial hemp typically found in the northern hemisphere, is a variety of the Cannabis sativa plant species that is grown specifically for the industrial. Are hemp and marijuana the same? Deconstructing Short Answer: No, they are just both part of the Cannabis family . Difference explained in official terms.
Its disadvantages include that it can cause coelution, in which two compounds with similar structure and polarities exit the HPLC device at the same time. This makes measuring the relative quantities of the respective compounds difficult or even impossible. Fortunately, coelution of cannabinoids is rare. This can be done by using several different devices, the most common of which are a flame ionization detector, an ultraviolet detector, and a mass spectrometer.
FID operates by collecting and measuring the amount of analyte ie, the substance being measured in a gas stream. The fact that it operates in the context of a vapor makes it particularly useful for GC; however, for this reason it is not used with HPLC, which does not emit a gas. This is its primary disadvantage for use with hemp. Additionally, of all of the detection and measuring methods described in this article, it is the least specific. As an aside, it is also the detection method most utilized by the DEA.
This detection device operates on the principal that chemicals absorb UV light at specific wavelengths. MS detects various molecules based on their distinctive mass and mass fragmentation pattern.
It does this in three stages. The first stage, ionization, vaporizes molecules in a sample and then bombards them with an electron beam, which causes them to become charged particles ie, ions.
The ions are then sorted by two processes, acceleration and deflection, and measured. MS only measures the mass of ions. Neutral molecules are not detected. The result is a spectrum. A high quality mass spectrometer detects and measures a fragmentation of each molecule. This removes much uncertainty and generates a very accurate result. Testing protocols may seem abstract. Teasing out their differences can be tedious.
This can translate to having a profitable crop or a total loss. The reason for the prevalence of this testing protocol is unknown. However, the same protocol is inappropriate and unreliable for hemp.
Additionally, most hemp plants are not destined to be heated ie, by smoking, vaping, or cooking in a recipe. The THC-A molecules in these plants will never be decarboxylated. As the hemp industry continues to consolidate standards it must promote and adopt reliable testing methods. Special thanks and acknowledgement.
I am indebted to my friends, Dr. Volker Bornemann of Avazyme Laboratories, for their invaluable information and insights that I obtained in conversations and email exchanges over the past several months. Helping a lawyer and philosophy major gain some small understanding of the scientific issues presented in this post is no small feat.
And, I appreciate those nice scientists from Waters Corporation that I was fortunate enough to meet at a recent networking event during a hemp conference for their willingness to forego casual conversation to talk these things out with a complete stranger.
Most importantly, I thank my wife and office manager, Ashley, for her unwavering support and wicked editorial skillz. He said hemp oil can reduce pain, soothe anxiety, fight chronic diseases and address sleep disorders. He said it also improves mental focus and improves recovery from exercise. While CBD oil has been highly touted as an effective treatment, Sclag cautioned that it can affect people differently depending upon the level of potency.
One man in the audience said his use of hemp oil has helped him reduce the number of medications he takes from 15 to one. The House of Nutrition, Sixth Ave.
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Change your screen habits from time-wasting to money-saving Couples need to get on same page about money Singletary: Talk is not cheap when it comes to love and money A bipartisan push to expand expungement Student loan default can gut your paycheck Writer: Horizons serves all genders. A psychotic outcome is not the only diagnostic category which has been associated with cannabis use. Symptoms of depression and anxiety commonly coexist with cannabis use and lead to diagnostic dilemmas [ Nunes et al.
Cannabis use can induce such symptoms, as well as be used secondary to a primary depressive illness [ Dakwar et al. As the majority of the studies have had psychotic illness as an outcome, in this section we will mainly be focusing on this diagnostic category. This is important as the strong THC variants of cannabis use have been increasing steeply, as have concerns on cannabis-related health risks, particularly for young people [ Hall and Degenhardt, ; Potter et al.
Recent epidemiological studies point towards a link between the use of cannabis and the development of a psychotic illness [ Zammit et al. Further evidence comes from a systematic review of longitudinal and population-based studies which show that cannabis use significantly increases the risk of development of a psychotic illness in a dose-dependent manner [ Moore et al.
The clinical picture of transient psychosis can be indistinguishable from a frank acute psychosis with delusions and hallucinations, except for its short duration.
Evidently there is considerable variation in the effects of cannabis on individuals. The biological basis of this variable sensitivity is yet unclear. There have been a number of studies exploring which groups are more vulnerable to developing a psychotic outcome as a result of cannabis use [ van Os et al.
Findings so far indicate that the effect of cannabis use is much stronger in those with any predisposition for psychosis at baseline than in those without [ Henquet et al. Indeed, individuals with a predisposition to psychosis indicated by a positive family history of psychosis have been found to be particularly sensitive to the effects of cannabis [ McGuire et al. Another indicator for a higher psychosis risk is the presence of subclinical psychotic features and again such individuals have been affected by a higher risk of developing a psychotic illness [ Henquet et al.
Furthermore those who are at ultra high risk for psychosis have been reported to be more sensitive to the psychotogenic effects of cannabis compared with users in the general population [ Peters et al. Because of the reported links between the schizotypal personality and schizophrenia, this type of personality disorder has come under scrutiny in examining the role of cannabis in producing psychotic symptoms.
Indeed, it has been shown that people scoring high in schizotypy who use cannabis are more likely to have psychosis-like experiences at the time of use, together with unpleasant side effects [ Barkus et al. This study has been replicated and it has been confirmed that those with schizotypal personality disorder carry a higher risk of experiencing psychotic symptoms with cannabis use [ Stirling et al.
Most recently, another study has provided further support for a strong association between early cannabis use and the development of schizophrenia spectrum disorder symptoms [ Anglin et al. The reported vulnerability factors mentioned here imply a strong genetic predisposition and there have been a number of studies looking particularly to specific genes which have been implicated in psychoses. The first such study was carried out by Caspi and colleagues [ Caspi et al.
In this longitudinal study, a specific susceptibility gene which has been linked to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, catechol-O-methyltransferase COMT , was examined in a representative birth cohort followed to adulthood. The study found that carriers of the COMT valine allele were most likely to exhibit psychotic symptoms and to develop schizophreniform disorder if they used cannabis before the age of However, the number of people carrying this allele was small in this study. Using a case-only design of people with schizophrenia, Zammit and colleagues re-examined this association but their findings did not support the different effects of cannabis use on schizophrenia according to variation in COMT [ Zammit et al.
More recently, van Winkel and colleagues looked at the effects of recent cannabis use whilst examining single nucleotide polymorphisms in 42 candidate genes in patients with psychosis and their unaffected siblings [ van Winkel et al. The authors found that genetic variation in serine-threonine protein kinase AKT1 may mediate both short- and long-term effects on psychosis expression associated with cannabis use.
Further support for the possible involvement of the AKT1 gene comes from our study with healthy volunteers. This study found that, during the encoding and recall conditions of the verbal memory task, the induction of psychotic symptoms by dTHC was correlated with the attenuated striatal and midbrain activation only in those who were G homozygotes of AKT1 and carriers of the 9-repeat allele dopamine transporter DAT1 [ Bhattacharyya et al.
Apart from schizotypal personality, the vulnerability factors to the psychotogenic effects of cannabis require replication. It is clear that further work needs to be carried out to explore the biological mechanisms which determine the vulnerability towards a psychotic outcome.
During the last decade, endocannabinoid research has been one of the fastest growing fields in psychopharmacology, opening ways to discover new medicines for a wide variety of health problems, ranging from metabolic disorders, to glaucoma and schizophrenia. The distribution of the endocannabinoid system in the brain is interesting as the very same brain areas are also implicated in psychoses, particularly in schizophrenia.
Furthermore, complex and intricate involvement of this system with other neurotransmitters such as dopamine, GABA and glutamatergic systems may have implications for the development of a psychotic illness.
Naturally, due to the recent and constant increase in the availability of higher THC content variants of cannabis around the world, there have been increasing concerns about the health risks, particularly for young people. However, cannabis affects people differently and therefore it is important to understand what makes someone more at risk and how they differ compared with those who do not develop psychotic illness.
Here we have provided an overview of the available information on the risk factors which may make an individual more at risk, such as predisposition to psychosis, schizotypal personality and certain susceptibility genes. Finding groups who are vulnerable is particularly important so that they can be targeted for early preventative and therapeutic interventions.
Such a search would also lead to the discovery of the biochemical mechanisms involved in cannabis and endocannabinoid research and ultimately to a better understanding of how the brain and the body functions. Thanks to Ethan Russo and Geoffrey W. Guy for providing the inspiration for Table 1. Also thanks to Dr Sanem Atakan for her help with the editing of the first draft.
This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. Conflict of interest statement: The author declare no conflicts of interest in preparing this article.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Ther Adv Psychopharmacol v. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Cannabis is a complex plant, with major compounds such as deltatetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, which have opposing effects. Cannabis, deltatetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, tetrahydrocannabivarin, endocannabinoids, individual sensitivity to cannabis.
Introduction Cannabis is a complex plant with over chemical entities of which more than 60 of them are cannabinoid compounds, some of them with opposing effects. Brief history of the biochemistry of the cannabis plant Even though cannabis has been used and cultivated by mankind for at least years [ Li, ] our current knowledge on its pharmacological properties is based on studies which have taken place only since the end of the nineteenth century.
Open in a separate window. Chemical structures of deltatetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol. Cannabinoid receptor system Another cornerstone in cannabinoid research was the identification of the specific binding sites of dTHC in the brain [ Devane et al.
Cannabinoid 1 and 2 receptors CB1Rs are mainly in the brain, particularly in the substantia nigra, the basal ganglia, limbic system, hippocampus and cerebellum, but are also expressed in the peripheral nervous system, liver, thyroid, uterus, bones and testicular tissue [ Russo and Guy, ; Pagotto et al.
Functions of the endocannabinoid receptor system Available evidence indicates that we do not yet have a complete understanding of the varied functions of the endocannabinoid system, which is widely distributed both in the brain and in the peripheral system and most glands and organs in the body.
Cannabis plant The cannabis plant has two main subspecies, Cannabis indica and Cannabis sativa , and they can be differentiated by their different physical characteristics.
Deltatetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol Natural compounds of the cannabis plant are also referred to as phytocannabinoids of which dTHC is the main psychoactive ingredient and has been widely researched both in animals and humans.
Intersubject variation in response to the psychotogenic effects of cannabis About Proposed factors determining sensitivity to psychosis in cannabis users. Sensitivity to psychosis as determined by: Possible sensitivity factors Study group Predisposition to psychosis Family history of psychotic illness McGuire et al. Conclusion During the last decade, endocannabinoid research has been one of the fastest growing fields in psychopharmacology, opening ways to discover new medicines for a wide variety of health problems, ranging from metabolic disorders, to glaucoma and schizophrenia.
J Psychoactive Drugs Biochem Biophys Res Commun J Clin Pharmacol AKT1 and DAT1 genotype modulates the effects of deltatetrahydrocannabinol on midbrain and striatal function. Mol Psychiatry 31 January epub ahead of print.
Curr Pharm Des Arch Gen Psychiatry J Biol Chem
4 days ago Hemp and marijuana both come from the cannabis plant, but the similarities end there. Here's how hemp and marijuana differ, from. An evaluation of the analytical testing methods used in the hemp industry. CBD is extracted and separated from specific varieties of cannabis, often known related to Cannabidiol, so we wanted to take the time to explain them to you.