Overview. Type 1 diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin- dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas. Type 1 diabetes in children — Comprehensive overview covers diagnosis, treatment, complications of this insulin-dependent condition. Researchers aren't entirely sure what causes type 1 diabetes, but they know that genes play a role, as do viral infections. Whatever triggers its.
causes diabetes? 1 What type
This is the most common form of type 1 diabetes, and it accounts for most cases. Insulin is a protein hormone made by the beta cells of an area of the pancreas an organ that lies behind the stomach. Insulin is needed to help glucose sugar enter the cells of the body. When glucose enters the cells, it can be used to produce energy, or it can be stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen for later use.
Insulin for injection comes from several sources. Human insulin is the kind most commonly used today to treat diabetes. Your team will also give you tips for: If these levels are in the target range most of the time, this means that her diabetes is well controlled.
Your diabetes team will give you specific recommendations on when and how often you should check her levels. Your diabetes team member will recommend a meter for your child and teach you how to use it. These are small and simple to use—and involve just a tiny pinprick. What about exercise for kids with type 1 diabetes?
In general, exercise tends to lower blood glucose levels. When your child exercises, her muscles use glucose at an increased rate to provide energy. The insulin has a greater effect on lowering blood glucose levels when a child is exercising, and even for some time after the exercise is over. To avoid low blood glucose when exercising: Plan vigorous activities for roughly the same times each day.
Plan activities to follow meals and snacks. Add an extra snack before exercise. What are the dangers of not treating type 1 diabetes? It can lead to serious, even life-threatening, problems such as: Insulin, food and exercise: How do we find the right balance?
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How can we help? If you have type 1 diabetes, it's recommended that you carry identification with you so that people are aware of the problem if you become hypoglycaemic. Some people with type 1 diabetes may benefit from a fairly new procedure known as islet cell transplantation.
It involves implanting healthy islet cells from the pancreas of a deceased donor into the pancreas of someone with type 1 diabetes. In , a government-funded islet cell transplant programme was introduced, and the procedure is now available through the NHS for people who satisfy certain criteria see below.
An islet cell transplant is a minor, low-risk procedure that's carried out under local anaesthetic. The procedure has been shown to be effective at reducing the risk of severe hypos. So far, the results of islet cell transplants carried out in the UK have shown a significant reduction in the number of hypos, from 23 per person per year before transplantation to less than one per person per year afterwards.
People with type 1 diabetes who are having a kidney transplant from a donor may also be offered a pancreas transplant at the same time. During the procedure, your faulty pancreas will be replaced with a healthy pancreas from a donor. Pancreas transplants are complicated operations and, like other types of major surgery, there's a risk of complications. The waiting time for a pancreas transplant is one to two years, because there's a shortage of suitable donor organs.
It can happen for several reasons, such as eating too much, being unwell or not taking enough insulin. Your diabetes care team can advise you about the best way to do this.
If hyperglycaemia isn't treated, it can lead to a condition called diabetic ketoacidosis, where the body begins to break down fats for energy instead of glucose, resulting in a build-up of ketones acids in your blood. Diabetic ketoacidosis is very serious and, if not addressed quickly, it can lead to unconsciousness and, eventually, death.
Read more about the symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis. Your healthcare team will educate you on how to decrease your risk of ketoacidosis by testing your own blood for ketones using blood ketone sticks if you're unwell. If you develop diabetic ketoacidosis, you'll need urgent hospital treatment. You'll be given insulin directly into a vein intravenously. You may also need other fluids given by a drip if you're dehydrated, including salt solution and potassium.
Type 1 diabetes can lead to long-term complications. If you have the condition, you have an increased risk of developing heart disease , stroke and kidney disease. To reduce the chance of this, you may be advised to take:. Diabetic kidney disease is identified by the presence of small amounts of a protein called albumin in your urine. It's often reversible if treated early enough. The aim of treating diabetes is to help people with the condition control their blood glucose levels and minimise the risk of developing future complications.
The Department of Health has set out national standards for NHS organisations and professionals covering diabetes care and prevention. The Diabetes National Service Framework was developed by diabetes clinical experts and patients with diabetes. Good diabetes care includes:. If diabetes isn't treated, it can lead to a number of different health problems.
High glucose levels can damage blood vessels, nerves and organs. High blood glucose levels can damage the tiny blood vessels of your nerves. This prevents the light from fully passing through to your retina. If it isn't treated, it can damage your vision. Read about diabetic eye screening. If it's caught early enough, diabetic retinopathy can be managed using laser treatment. However, this will only preserve the sight you have, rather than make it better.
If the small blood vessels in your kidney become blocked and leaky, your kidneys will work less efficiently. Damage to the nerves of the foot can mean that small nicks and cuts aren't noticed, which can lead to a foot ulcer developing. If you develop nerve damage, you should check your feet every day and report any changes to your doctor, nurse or podiatrist. Look out for sores and cuts that don't heal, puffiness or swelling, and skin that feels hot to the touch.
You should also have a foot examination at least once a year. Read more about foot care and diabetes. If your blood sugar level isn't carefully controlled immediately before and during early pregnancy, there's also an increased risk of the baby developing a serious birth defect.
Pregnant women with diabetes will usually have their antenatal check-ups in hospital or a diabetes clinic. This allows doctors to keep a close eye on their blood sugar levels and control their insulin dosage more easily. The Diabetes UK website has more information about diabetes complications. Having diabetes means that you're more likely to develop problems with your feet, including foot ulcers and infections from minor cuts and grazes.
To prevent problems with your feet, keep your nails short and wash your feet daily using warm water. See your GP if you have a minor foot injury that doesn't start to heal within a few days.
Retinopathy is an eye condition where the small blood vessels in your eye become damaged. It can occur if your blood glucose level is too high for a long time hyperglycaemia. If it isn't treated, retinopathy can eventually cause sight loss. Read more about diabetic eye screening. If you have diabetes and you're thinking about having a baby, it's a good idea to discuss this with your diabetes care team. You'll need to keep your blood sugar under tight control, particularly before becoming pregnant and during the first eight weeks of pregnancy, to reduce the risk of the baby developing serious birth defects.
Folic acid helps prevent your baby developing spinal cord problems. Doctors now recommend that all women planning to have a baby take folic acid. Women with diabetes are advised to take 5mg a day until they're 12 weeks pregnant only available on prescription.
You should also have your eyes checked. Retinopathy see above affects the blood vessels in the eyes and is a risk for all people with diabetes. Pregnancy can place extra pressure on the small vessels in your eyes, so it's important to treat retinopathy before you become pregnant.
Your GP or diabetes care team can give you further advice. You'll be best equipped to manage your diabetes if you're given information and education when you're diagnosed, and then on an ongoing basis. This gives people the best chance of developing the skills they need to effectively treat their condition, maintain their glucose levels at a normal level and help prevent long-term complications. It also reduces the risk of developing hypoglycaemia low blood glucose levels.
There are also several local adult education programmes, many of which are working towards the criteria for structured education. Ask your diabetes care team about the adult education programmes they provide. For a parent whose child is diagnosed with a life-long condition, the job of parenting becomes even tougher. The Diabetes UK website has more information and advice about your child and diabetes. Many people find it helpful to talk to others in a similar position, and you may find support from a group for people with diabetes.
Patient organisations have local groups where you can meet others who've been diagnosed with the condition. If your diabetes is controlled by medication, you're entitled to free prescriptions and eye examinations. Some people with diabetes may be eligible to receive disability benefits and incapacity benefits, depending on the impact the condition has on their life.
People over 65 who are severely disabled, may qualify for a type of disability benefit called Attendance Allowance. Carers may also be entitled to some benefit too, depending on their involvement in caring for the person with diabetes.
Home Illnesses and conditions Diabetes Type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes See all parts of this guide Hide guide parts About type 1 diabetes Symptoms of type 1 diabetes Causes of type 1 diabetes Diagnosing type 1 diabetes Treating type 1 diabetes Complications of type 1 diabetes Living with type 1 diabetes.
About type 1 diabetes Diabetes is a lifelong condition that causes a person's blood sugar glucose level to become too high. There are two main types of diabetes: Type 1 and type 2 diabetes Type 1 diabetes can develop at any age, but usually appears before the age of 40, particularly in childhood. Read more about the complications of type 1 diabetes Living with diabetes If you have type 1 diabetes, you'll need to look after your health very carefully.
Symptoms of type 1 diabetes The symptoms of type 1 diabetes can develop very quickly over a few days or weeks , particularly in children.
When to seek urgent medical attention You should seek urgent medical attention if you have diabetes and develop: Symptoms of a "hypo" include: Causes of type 1 diabetes Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body is unable to produce insulin. Autoimmune condition Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition. Diagnosing type 1 diabetes It's important to diagnose diabetes as early as possible, so that treatment can be started. Urine and blood tests Your urine sample will be tested to see whether it contains glucose.
Glycated haemoglobin HbA1c The glycated haemoglobin HbA1c test is another blood test that can be used to diagnose diabetes. Antibody tests There are blood tests for specific antibodies that can identify type 1 diabetes. However, you may need to have your HbA1c measured more frequently if: Treating type 1 diabetes Monitoring blood glucose An important part of your treatment is to make sure that your blood sugar level is as normal and stable as possible.
Islet cell transplantation Some people with type 1 diabetes may benefit from a fairly new procedure known as islet cell transplantation. You may be suitable for an islet cell transplant if you've had: Pancreas transplant People with type 1 diabetes who are having a kidney transplant from a donor may also be offered a pancreas transplant at the same time.
The signs of diabetic ketoacidosis include: Other treatments Type 1 diabetes can lead to long-term complications. To reduce the chance of this, you may be advised to take: Care standards for diabetes The aim of treating diabetes is to help people with the condition control their blood glucose levels and minimise the risk of developing future complications.
Good diabetes care includes:
Type 1 Diabetes Symptoms & Causes
Type 1 diabetes happens when your immune system destroys cells in your pancreas called beta cells. They're the ones that make insulin. It is important to know it is not your fault that you have type 1 diabetes – it is not caused by poor diet or an unhealthy lifestyle. In fact, it isn't caused by anything. Many types of diabetes have similar symptoms, but types 1 and 2 and gestational diabetes have different causes. Less common types of diabetes have other.