Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States. The state's "Michigan Legislature - Act 94 of ". online-casino-player.infoature. online-casino-player.info ^ Thiel, Craig. "Michigan agricultural exports" (PDF). Retrieved September 3. 22nd; Water: 40, online-casino-player.info (, online-casino-player.info), 2nd; Great Lakes: 38, online-casino-player.info ( 98, online-casino-player.info),1st. Constitution: Michigan's Constitution, 26th State. Capital City: . Whether you are traveling with your family or making memories with friends – you are on the brink of planning a vacation so unique, it can only be classified as.
(MI) About Michigan
Expand All Collapse All. January 26, 26th State. Michigan's Constitution , 26th State. Robin List of State Birds. Michigan Fun Facts and Trivia. The design on Michigan's deep blue field has three mottoes: The elk and moose are symbols of Michigan, while the eagle represents the United States. Based on the Ojibwa Indian word misshikama meaning "great water," referring to the Great Lakes. Douglas Malloch Music by: Michigan Quarter List of State Quarters. Michigan County Map , 83 Counties.
The Wyandot were an Iroquoian-speaking people in this area; they were historically known as the Huron by the French. French voyageurs and coureurs des bois explored and settled in Michigan in the 17th century.
Marie, Michigan as a base for Catholic missions. Jesuit missionaries were well received by the area's Indian populations, with few difficulties or hostilities.
In , the French established a trading post and Fort St. Joseph along the St. Joseph River at the present-day city of Niles. The hundred soldiers and workers who accompanied Cadillac built a fort enclosing one arpent   about 0.
The town quickly became a major fur-trading and shipping post. While the original building does not survive, the congregation remains active. Cadillac later departed to serve as the French governor of Louisiana from to French attempts to consolidate the fur trade led to the Fox Wars involving the Meskwaki Fox and their allies versus the French and their Native allies.
At the same time, the French strengthened Fort Michilimackinac at the Straits of Mackinac to better control their lucrative fur-trading empire.
By the midth century, the French also occupied forts at present-day Niles and Sault Ste. Marie, though most of the rest of the region remained unsettled by Europeans.
France offered free land to attract families to Detroit, which grew to people in , and was the largest city between Montreal and New Orleans. By , Detroit's population was up to 2, and it was the third-largest city in Quebec. Most of the inhabitants were French-Canadians or Native Americans, many of whom had been allied with the French because of long trading ties.
Because of imprecise cartography and unclear language defining the boundaries in the Treaty of Paris , the British retained control of Detroit and Michigan after the American Revolution. It held its first democratic elections in August to send delegates to the new provincial parliament at Newark now Niagara-on-the-Lake. Under terms negotiated in the Jay Treaty , Britain withdrew from Detroit and Michilimackinac in It retained control of territory east and south of the Detroit River, which are now included in Ontario, Canada.
Questions remained over the boundary for many years, and the United States did not have uncontested control of the Upper Peninsula and Drummond Island until and , respectively.
During the War of , the United States forces at Fort Detroit surrendered Michigan Territory effectively consisting of Detroit and the surrounding area after a nearly bloodless siege in This battle, still ranked as the bloodiest ever fought in the state, had the highest number of American casualties of any battle in the war. Michigan was recaptured by Americans in after the Battle of Lake Erie. They used Michigan as a base to launch an invasion of Canada, which culminated in the Battle of the Thames.
But the more northern areas of Michigan were held by the British until the peace treaty restored the old boundaries. A number of forts, including Fort Wayne , were built by the United States in Michigan during the 19th century out of fears of renewed fighting with Britain. The new route attracted a large influx of settlers to the Michigan territory.
They worked as farmers, lumbermen, shipbuilders, and merchants and shipped out grain, lumber, and iron ore. By the s, Michigan had 80, residents, more than enough to apply and qualify for statehood. Congress awarded the "Toledo Strip" to Ohio. Michigan received the western part of the Upper Peninsula as a concession and formally entered the Union as a free state on January 26, The Upper Peninsula proved to be a rich source of lumber, iron, and copper.
Michigan led the nation in lumber production from the s to the s. Railroads became a major engine of growth from the s onward, with Detroit the chief hub. A second wave of French-Canadian immigrants settled in Michigan during the late 19th to early 20th century, working in lumbering areas in counties on the Lake Huron side of the Lower Peninsula, such as the Saginaw Valley, Alpena, and Cheboygan counties, as well as throughout the Upper Peninsula, with large concentrations in Escanaba and the Keweenaw Peninsula.
The first statewide meeting of the Republican Party took place July 6, , in Jackson, Michigan , where the party adopted its platform. The state was heavily Republican until the s. Michigan made a significant contribution to the Union in the American Civil War and sent more than forty regiments of volunteers to the federal armies. Modernizers and boosters set up systems for public education, including founding the University of Michigan , moved to Ann Arbor in for a classical academic education; and Michigan State Normal School , now Eastern Michigan University , for the training of teachers.
It adopted this model from the German educational system. In , Michigan State became the first normal college in the nation to offer a four-year curriculum. Michigan Agricultural College , now Michigan State University in East Lansing, was founded as the pioneer land-grant college , a model for those authorized under the Morrill Act Many private colleges were founded as well, and the smaller cities established high schools late in the century.
Michigan's economy underwent a transformation at the turn of the 20th century. Many individuals, including Ransom E. Like the steamship and railroad, mass production of automobiles was a far-reaching development.
More than the forms of public transportation, the affordable automobile transformed private life. Automobile production became the major industry of Detroit and Michigan, and permanently altered the socio-economic life of the United States and much of the world.
With the growth, the auto industry created jobs in Detroit that attracted immigrants from Europe and migrants from across the United States, including both blacks and whites from the rural South. By , Detroit was the fourth-largest city in the US.
Residential housing was in short supply, and it took years for the market to catch up with the population boom. By the s, so many immigrants had arrived that more than 30 languages were spoken in the public schools, and ethnic communities celebrated in annual heritage festivals. Over the years immigrants and migrants contributed greatly to Detroit's diverse urban culture, including popular music trends. The influential Motown Sound of the s was led by a variety of individual singers and groups.
Grand Rapids , the second-largest city in Michigan, is also an important center of manufacturing. Since , the city has been noted for its furniture industry. In the 21st century, it is home to five of the world's leading office furniture companies. Grand Rapids is home to a number of major companies including Steelcase , Amway , and Meijer. Michigan held its first United States presidential primary election in With its rapid growth in industry, it was an important center of industry-wide union organizing, such as the rise of the United Auto Workers.
Throughout that decade, some of the country's largest and most ornate skyscrapers were built in the city. In a school bombing took place in Clinton County.
The Bath School disaster , perpetrated by an adult man, resulted in the deaths of 38 schoolchildren and constitutes the deadliest mass murder in a school in U. Michigan converted much of its manufacturing to satisfy defense needs during World War II; it manufactured Detroit continued to expand through the s, at one point doubling its population in a decade. After World War II , housing was developed in suburban areas outside city cores to meet demand for residences.
The federal government subsidized the construction of interstate highways , which were intended to strengthen military access, but also allowed commuters and business traffic to travel the region more easily.
Since , modern advances in the auto industry have led to increased automation, high-tech industry, and increased suburban growth. Detroit is the centrally located metropolitan area of the Great Lakes Megalopolis and the second-largest metropolitan area in the U. The Grand Rapids metropolitan area in Western Michigan is the state's fastest-growing metro area, with over 1. Metro Detroit receives more than 15 million visitors each year. On November 6, , the state electorate voted to pass Proposal 2 that amended the state constitution to create a independent redistrict commission.
Michigan is governed as a republic, with three branches of government: The power of initiative extends only to laws which the legislature may enact under this constitution". Lansing is the state capital and is home to all three branches of state government. The governor and the other state constitutional officers serve four-year terms and may be re-elected only once. The governor is Gretchen Whitmer. Michigan has two official Governor's Residences ; one is in Lansing, and the other is at Mackinac Island.
The other constitutionally elected executive officers are the lieutenant governor , who is elected on a joint ticket with the governor, the secretary of state , and the attorney general. The lieutenant governor presides over the Senate but only voting when ties occur, and is also a member of the cabinet.
The secretary of state is the chief elections officer and is charged with running many licensure programs including motor vehicles, all of which are done through the branch offices of the secretary of state.
Members of both houses of the legislature are elected through first past the post elections by single-member electoral districts of near-equal population that often have boundaries which coincide with county and municipal lines.
Senators serve four-year terms concurrent to those of the governor, while representatives serve two-year terms. The Michigan State Capitol was dedicated in and has hosted the executive and legislative branches of the state ever since. The Michigan judiciary consists of two courts with primary jurisdiction the Circuit Courts and the District Courts , one intermediate level appellate court the Michigan Court of Appeals , and the Michigan Supreme Court.
There are several administrative courts and specialized courts. District courts are often responsible for handling the preliminary examination and for setting bail in felony cases.
District court judges are elected to terms of six years. In a few locations, municipal courts have been retained to the exclusion of the establishment of district courts. Circuit courts are also the only trial courts in the State of Michigan which possess the power to issue equitable remedies.
Circuit courts have appellate jurisdiction from district and municipal courts, as well as from decisions and decrees of state agencies. Most counties have their own circuit court, but sparsely populated counties often share them. Circuit court judges are elected to terms of six years. State appellate court judges are elected to terms of six years, but vacancies are filled by an appointment by the governor. Cases are heard by the Court of Appeals by panels of three judges, who examine the application of the law and not the facts of the case unless there has been grievous error pertaining to questions of fact.
The Michigan Supreme Court consists of seven members who are elected on non-partisan ballots for staggered eight-year terms. The Supreme Court has original jurisdiction only in narrow circumstances but holds appellate jurisdiction over the entire state judicial system. Michigan has had four constitutions , the first of which was ratified on October 5 and 6, Michigan, like every U.
Voters in the state elect candidates from both major parties. Economic issues are important in Michigan elections. The state has elected successive Republican attorneys general twice since Bush , and Donald Trump.
The Governor Gretchen Whitmer —present is a Democrat. In contrast, the state supported Democratic candidates in each presidential election from to Senator Debbie Stabenow , a Democrat, has served since after narrowly beating former Republican U.
Senator Spencer Abraham in the elections. Congresswoman Debbie Dingell , a Democrat, became the first person to succeed a living spouse when she replaced former Dean of the House of Representatives John Dingell in Republican strongholds of the state include rural areas of Western and Northern Michigan , the Grand Rapids metropolitan area, and Livingston County. Much of suburban Detroit—which includes parts of Oakland , Macomb , and Wayne counties—is politically competitive between the two parties.
Historically, the first county-level meeting of the Republican Party took place in Jackson on July 6, ,  and the party thereafter dominated Michigan until the Great Depression.
In the election , Michigan was one of the six states to support progressive Republican and third-party candidate Theodore Roosevelt for president after he lost the Republican nomination to William Howard Taft. Michigan remained fairly reliably Republican at the presidential level for much of the 20th century. It was part of Greater New England, the northern tier of states settled chiefly by migrants from New England who carried their culture with them.
Dewey in his losing bid against Harry S. Michigan went to the Democrats in presidential elections during the s and voted for the Republican candidate in every election from to Between and it supported the Democrats; early on in , it was pegged as a swing state , and was narrowly won by the G.
Born in Nebraska, he moved as an infant to Grand Rapids. In Michigan became the first state in the Union, as well as the first English-speaking government in the world,   to abolish the death penalty. Historian David Chardavoyne has suggested the movement to abolish capital punishment in Michigan grew as a result of enmity toward the state's neighbor, Canada. Under British rule, it made public executions a regular practice.
Michigan has recognized and performed same-sex marriages since June 26, , following the Supreme Court ruling in Obergefell v. On November 6, , Michigan approved a proposal to legalize the recreational use of marijuana.
State government is decentralized among three tiers—statewide, county and township. Counties are administrative divisions of the state, and townships are administrative divisions of a county. Both of them exercise state government authority, localized to meet the particular needs of their jurisdictions, as provided by state law.
There are 83 counties in Michigan. Cities, state universities , and villages are vested with home rule powers of varying degrees. Home rule cities can generally do anything not prohibited by law. The fifteen state universities have broad power and can do anything within the parameters of their status as educational institutions that is not prohibited by the state constitution. Villages, by contrast, have limited home rule and are not completely autonomous from the county and township in which they are located.
There are two types of township in Michigan: Charter township status was created by the Legislature in and grants additional powers and stream-lined administration in order to provide greater protection against annexation by a city. In general, charter townships have many of the same powers as a city but without the same level of obligations. For example, a charter township can have its own fire department, water and sewer department, police department, and so on—just like a city—but it is not required to have those things, whereas cities must provide those services.
Charter townships can opt to use county-wide services instead, such as deputies from the county sheriff's office instead of a home-based force of ordinance officers. Lawrence watershed and is the only state with the majority of its land thus drained. It has more public golf courses , registered boats and lighthouses than any other state.
The state is bounded on the south by the states of Ohio and Indiana , sharing land and water boundaries with both. Michigan's western boundaries are almost entirely water boundaries, from south to north, with Illinois and Wisconsin in Lake Michigan; then a land boundary with Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula, that is principally demarcated by the Menominee and Montreal Rivers ; then water boundaries again, in Lake Superior, with Wisconsin and Minnesota to the west, capped around by the Canadian province of Ontario to the north and east.
The heavily forested Upper Peninsula is relatively mountainous in the west. The surface on either side of this range is rugged.
The peninsula is as large as Connecticut, Delaware, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island combined but has fewer than , inhabitants. They are sometimes called "Yoopers" from "U. The Lower Peninsula is shaped like a mitten and many residents hold up a hand to depict where they are from.
The surface of the peninsula is generally level, broken by conical hills and glacial moraines usually not more than a few hundred feet tall. It is divided by a low water divide running north and south. The larger portion of the state is on the west of this and gradually slopes toward Lake Michigan. The geographic orientation of Michigan's peninsulas makes for a long distance between the ends of the state.
Ironwood , in the far western Upper Peninsula, lies miles 1, kilometers by highway from Lambertville in the Lower Peninsula's southeastern corner. The geographic isolation of the Upper Peninsula from Michigan's political and population centers makes the U. A feature of Michigan that gives it the distinct shape of a mitten is the Thumb. This peninsula projects out into Lake Huron and the Saginaw Bay.
The geography of the Thumb is mainly flat with a few rolling hills. Other peninsulas of Michigan include the Keweenaw Peninsula , making up the Copper Country region of the state.
See Also Michigan Regions. Numerous lakes and marshes mark both peninsulas, and the coast is much indented. Michigan has about lighthouses , the most of any U. The first lighthouses in Michigan were built between and They were built to project light at night and to serve as a landmark during the day to safely guide the passenger ships and freighters traveling the Great Lakes. See Lighthouses in the United States.
The state's rivers are generally small, short and shallow, and few are navigable. The principal ones include the Detroit River , St. Marys River , and St.
No point in Michigan is more than six miles 9. The state is home to several areas maintained by the National Park Service including: Other national protected areas in the state include: With 78 state parks , 19 state recreation areas, and 6 state forests , Michigan has the largest state park and state forest system of any state.
Michigan has a continental climate , although there are two distinct regions. Some parts of the state average high temperatures below freezing from December through February, and into early March in the far northern parts. During the winter through the middle of February, the state is frequently subjected to heavy lake-effect snow. The state averages 30 days of thunderstorm activity per year. These can be severe, especially in the southern part of the state.
The state averages 17 tornadoes per year, which are more common in the state's extreme southern section. Portions of the southern border have been almost as vulnerable historically as states further west and in Tornado Alley.
For this reason, many communities in the very southern portions of the state have tornado sirens to warn residents of approaching tornadoes. The geological formation of the state is greatly varied, with the Michigan Basin being the most major formation.
Primary boulders are found over the entire surface of the Upper Peninsula being principally of primitive origin , while Secondary deposits cover the entire Lower Peninsula. The Upper Peninsula exhibits Lower Silurian sandstones, limestones, copper and iron bearing rocks, corresponding to the Huronian system of Canada.
The central portion of the Lower Peninsula contains coal measures and rocks of the Pennsylvanian period. Devonian and sub-Carboniferous deposits are scattered over the entire state. Michigan rarely experiences earthquakes , thus far mostly smaller ones that do not cause significant damage. More recently, a 4.
No major damage or injuries were reported, according to Governor Rick Snyder 's office. The center of population of Michigan is in Shiawassee County , in the southeastern corner of the civil township of Bennington , which is northwest of the village of Morrice. As of the American Community Survey for the U. Census, the state had a foreign-born population of ,, or 6. The Census reported:. In the same year Hispanics or Latinos of any race made up 4.
The large majority of Michigan's population is Caucasian. Americans of European descent live throughout Michigan and most of Metro Detroit.
People of Scandinavian descent, and those of Finnish ancestry, have a notable presence in the Upper Peninsula. Western Michigan is known for the Dutch heritage of many residents the highest concentration of any state , especially in Holland and metropolitan Grand Rapids.
African-Americans, who came to Detroit and other northern cities in the Great Migration of the early 20th century, form a majority of the population of the city of Detroit and of other cities, including Flint and Benton Harbor. As of [update] about , people in Southeastern Michigan trace their descent from the Middle East.
As of [update] , almost 8, Hmong people lived in the State of Michigan, about double their presence in the state. The state has Japanese employment facilities providing 35, local jobs.
A person from Michigan is called a Michigander or Michiganian;  also at times, but rarely, a "Michiganite". As of [update] , When Michigan became a state in , the boundary of the Diocese of Detroit was redrawn to coincide with that of the State; the other dioceses were later carved out from the Diocese of Detroit but remain part of the Ecclesiastical Province of Detroit.
In , the largest Protestant denominations were the United Methodist Church with , adherents; followed by the Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod with ,, and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America with , adherents. Battle Creek , Michigan is also the birthplace of the Seventh-day Adventist Church , which was founded on May 21, Products and services include automobiles, food products, information technology, aerospace, military equipment, furniture, and mining of copper and iron ore.
Faygo was founded in Detroit on November 4, Two of the top four pizza chains were founded in Michigan and are headquartered there: Michigan became the 24th Right to Work state in U. Since , GM, Ford and Chrysler have managed a significant reorganization of their benefit funds structure after a volatile stock market which followed the September 11 attacks and early s recession impacted their respective U.
Manufacturing in the state grew 6. In , GM and Chrysler emerged from Chapter 11 restructurings with financing provided in part by the U. As of [update] , Michigan ranked fourth in the U. The domestic auto industry accounts directly and indirectly for one of every ten jobs in the U.
Michigan was second in the U. From to , Michigan was the only state to top the 10, mark for the number of major new developments;   however, the effects of the late s recession have slowed the state's economy. In , Michigan placed third in a site selection survey among the states for luring new business which measured capital investment and new job creation per one million population.
Department of Energy for the manufacture of electric vehicle technologies which is expected to generate 6, immediate jobs and employ 40, in the state by As leading research institutions, the University of Michigan , Michigan State University , and Wayne State University are important partners in the state's economy and its University Research Corridor. Michigan's workforce is well-educated and highly skilled, making it attractive to companies.
It has the third highest number of engineering graduates nationally. Detroit Metropolitan Airport is one of the nation's most recently expanded and modernized airports with six major runways, and large aircraft maintenance facilities capable of servicing and repairing a Boeing and is a major hub for Delta Air Lines.
Michigan's schools and colleges rank among the nation's best. The state has maintained its early commitment to public education. The state's infrastructure gives it a competitive edge; Michigan has 38 deep water ports. Michigan led the nation in job creation improvement in Michigan's personal income tax is set to a flat rate of 4.
Property taxes are appealable to local boards of review and need the approval of the local electorate to exceed millage rates prescribed by state law and local charters. A wide variety of commodity crops, fruits, and vegetables are grown in Michigan, making it second only to California among U.
Leading crops include corn, soybeans, flowers, wheat, sugar beets, and potatoes. Michigan is a leading grower of fruit in the U. These fruits are mainly grown in West Michigan due to the moderating effect of Lake Michigan on the climate.
There is also significant fruit production, especially cherries, but also grapes, apples, and other fruits, in Northwest Michigan along Lake Michigan. Michigan produces wines , beers and a multitude of processed food products. Kellogg's cereal is based in Battle Creek, Michigan and processes many locally grown foods. Michigan is home to very fertile land in the Saginaw Valley and " Thumb " areas.
Products grown there include corn, sugar beets, navy beans, and soybeans. Sugar beet harvesting usually begins the first of October. It takes the sugar factories about five months to process the 3. Potatoes are grown in Northern Michigan , and corn is dominant in Central Michigan. Alfalfa, cucumbers, and asparagus are also grown. Michigan is fifty percent forest land, much of it quite remote.
The forests, lakes and thousands of miles of beaches are top attractions. In , the Michigan State Board of Education mandated all public schools in the state hold their first day of school after the Labor Day holiday, in accordance with the new Post Labor Day School law.
Hunting and fishing are significant industries in the state. Charter boats are based in many Great Lakes cities to fish for salmon, trout, walleye, and perch. Over three-quarters of a million hunters participate in white-tailed deer season alone.
Many school districts in rural areas of Michigan cancel school on the opening day of firearm deer season, because of attendance concerns. Michigan's Department of Natural Resources manages the largest dedicated state forest system in the nation. Public hiking and hunting access has also been secured in extensive commercial forests.
The state has the highest number of golf courses and registered snowmobiles in the nation. The state has numerous historical markers , which can themselves become the center of a tour. With its position in relation to the Great Lakes and the countless ships that have foundered over the many years they have been used as a transport route for people and bulk cargo, Michigan is a world-class scuba diving destination.
The Michigan Underwater Preserves are 11 underwater areas where wrecks are protected for the benefit of sport divers. Michigan has nine international road crossings with Ontario , Canada:. A second international bridge between Detroit and Windsor is under consideration.
Michigan is served by four Class I railroads: These are augmented by several dozen short line railroads. The vast majority of rail service in Michigan is devoted to freight , with Amtrak and various scenic railroads the exceptions. Amtrak passenger rail services the state, connecting many southern and western Michigan cities to Chicago, Illinois. The Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport , in the western suburb of Romulus , was in the 16th busiest airfield in North America measured by passenger traffic.
Ford International Airport in Grand Rapids is the next busiest airport in the state, served by eight airlines to 23 destinations. Flint Bishop International Airport is the third largest airport in the state, served by four airlines to several primary hubs. Smaller regional and local airports are located throughout the state including on several islands.
Cherry Capital Airport is in Traverse City. Half of the wealthiest communities in the state are in Oakland County , just north of Detroit. Another wealthy community is just east of the city, in Grosse Pointe. Only three of these cities are outside of Metro Detroit.
Whether you are motivated by geography, a specific activity or are just curious about some of the top places to visit in Michigan, this regional and city guide will . Cleland, Charles E. Rites of Conquest: The History and Culture of Michigan's Native Americans. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. VISITING MICHIGAN. Feb 16 Seven Lakes State Park - Ice Fishing Derby - Centennial Event. It is Free Fishing Weekend, which means there are no fishing.