The THC-rich type of cannabis oil has already been known for some years, and is .. Table 1. Analysis of Dutch cannabis oil samples obtained from actual patients, .. International Cannabis and Cannabinoids Institute, Due to its non-psychoactive healing properties, Cannabidiol (CBD) has Sep 7, that the CBD contains all other cannabinoids found in the marijuana As shown in the chart above, each cannabinoid offers different. Find out how THC and CBD produce effects, how they work together to relieve many symptoms and by Luka, May 8, Last updated: January 31,
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However, CBD does appear to produce significant changes in the body, and some research suggests that it has medical benefits. The least processed form of the cannabis plant is hemp. Hemp contains most of the CBD that people use medicinally. Hemp and marijuana come from the same plant, Cannabis sativa , but the two are very different.
Over the years, marijuana farmers have selectively bred their plants to contain high levels of THC and other compounds that interested them, often because the compounds produced a smell or had another effect on the plant's flowers. However, hemp farmers have rarely modified the plant. These hemp plants are used to create CBD oil. The human body produces certain cannabinoids on its own. It also has two receptors for cannabinoids, called the CB1 receptors and CB2 receptors.
The CB1 receptors in the brain deal with coordination and movement, pain, emotions, and mood, thinking, appetite, and memories, and other functions. THC attaches to these receptors. CB2 receptors are more common in the immune system. They affect inflammation and pain. People tend to use prescription or over-the-counter drugs to relieve stiffness and pain, including chronic pain.
Authors of a study published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine found that CBD significantly reduced chronic inflammation and pain in some mice and rats. The researchers suggested that the non-psychoactive compounds in marijuana, such as CBD, could provide a new treatment for chronic pain. Some promising evidence suggests that CBD use may help people to quit smoking.
A pilot study published in Addictive Behaviors found that smokers who used inhalers containing CBD smoked fewer cigarettes than usual and had no further cravings for nicotine. A similar review, published in Neurotherapeutics found that CBD may be a promising treatment for people with opioid addiction disorders. The researchers noted that CBD reduced some symptoms associated with substance use disorders.
These included anxiety , mood-related symptoms, pain, and insomnia. More research is necessary, but these findings suggest that CBD may help to prevent or reduce withdrawal symptoms. After researching the safety and effectiveness of CBD oil for treating epilepsy, the FDA approved the use of CBD Epidiolex as a therapy for two rare conditions characterized by epileptic seizures in The types of seizures that characterize LGS or DS are difficult to control with other types of medication.
The FDA specified that doctors could not prescribe Epidiolex for children younger than 2 years. A physician or pharmacist will determine the right dosage based on body weight. Authors of a review noted that CBD has anti-seizure properties and a low risk of side effects for people with epilepsy.
Findings suggested that CBD may also treat many complications linked to epilepsy, such as neurodegeneration, neuronal injury, and psychiatric diseases. Another study, published in Current Pharmaceutical Design, found that CBD may produce effects similar to those of certain antipsychotic drugs, and that the compound may provide a safe and effective treatment for people with schizophrenia.
However, further research is necessary. Some researchers have found that CBD may prove to combat cancer. Authors of a review published in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology found evidence that CBD significantly helped to prevent the spread of cancer.
The researchers also noted that the compound tends to suppress the growth of cancer cells and promote their destruction. They pointed out that CBD has low levels of toxicity. They called for further research into its potential as an accompaniment to standard cancer treatments. Doctors often advise people with chronic anxiety to avoid cannabis, as THC can trigger or amplify feelings of anxiousness and paranoia. However, authors of a review from Neurotherapeutics found that CBD may help to reduce anxiety in people with certain related disorders.
According to the review, CBD may reduce anxiety-related behaviors in people with conditions such as:. The authors noted that current treatments for these disorders can lead to additional symptoms and side effects, which can cause some people to stop taking them.
No further definitive evidence currently links CBD to adverse effects, and the authors called for further studies of the compound as a treatment for anxiety. Type 1 diabetes results from inflammation that occurs when the immune system attacks cells in the pancreas.
Research published in by Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation found that CBD may ease this inflammation in the pancreas. This may be the first step in finding a CBD-based treatment for type 1 diabetes. A paper presented in the same year in Lisbon, Portugal, suggested that CBD may reduce inflammation and protect against or delay the development of type 1 diabetes. Acne treatment is another promising use for CBD. The condition is caused, in part, by inflammation and overworked sebaceous glands in the body.
A study published by the Journal of Clinical Investigation found that CBD helps to lower the production of sebum that leads to acne, partly because of its anti-inflammatory effect on the body. Sebum is an oily substance, and overproduction can cause acne. Initial research published in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease found that CBD was able to prevent the development of social recognition deficit in participants. This means that CBD could help people in the early stages of Alzheimer's to keep the ability to recognize the faces of people that they know.
This is the first evidence that CBD may slow the progression of Alzheimer's disease. Cannabis is legal for either medicinal or recreational use in some American states.
Other states have approved the use of CBD oil as a hemp product but not the general use of medical marijuana. Some state and federal laws differ, and current marijuana and CBD legislation in the U. There is an ever-changing number of states that do not necessarily consider marijuana to be legal but have laws directly related to CBD oil. The following information is accurate as of May 8, , but the laws change frequently.
However, state legislators generally approve the use of CBD oil at various concentrations to treat a range of epileptic conditions. A full list of states that have CBD-specific laws is available here. Different states also require different levels of prescription to possess and use CBD oil. In Missouri, for example, a person can use CBD of a particular composition if they can show that three other treatment options have failed to treat their epilepsy. Anyone considering CBD oil should speak with a local healthcare provider.
They can provide information about safe CBD sources and local laws surrounding usage. This is one of more than 80 active chemicals in marijuana. The new product was approved to treat seizures associated with two rare, severe forms of epilepsy in patients two years of age and older.
Many small-scale studies have looked into the safety of CBD in adults. They concluded that adults tend to tolerate a wide range of doses well. Researchers have found no significant side effects on the central nervous system , the vital signs, or mood, even among people who used high dosages. The most common side effect was tiredness. Also, some people reported diarrhea and changes in appetite or weight. Concerning the product that the FDA approved to treat two types of epilepsy, researchers noticed following adverse effects in clinical trials:.
The patient information leaflet notes that there is a risk of worsening depression or suicidal thoughts. It is important to monitor anyone who is using this drug for signs of mood change.
Research suggests that a person taking the product is unlikely to form a dependency. There is often a lack of evidence regarding the safety of new or alternative treatment options.
Usually, researchers have not performed the full array of tests. Anyone who is considering using CBD should talk to a qualified healthcare practitioner beforehand. When drugs do not have FDA approval, it can be difficult to know whether a product contains a safe or effective level of CBD. Unapproved products may not have the properties or contents stated on the packaging. It is important to note that researchers have linked marijuana use during pregnancy to impairments in the fetal development of neurons.
Regular use among teens is associated with issues concerning memory, behavior, and intelligence. CBD-based products come in many forms. Some can be mixed into different foods or drinks or taken with a pipette or dropper. Others are available in capsules or as a thick paste to be massaged into the skin.
Some products are available as sprays to be administered under the tongue. Recommended dosages vary between individuals, and depend on factors such as body weight, the concentration of the product, and the health issue.
Due to the lack of FDA regulation for most CBD products, seek advice from a medical professional before determining the best dosage. As regulation in the U. After discussing dosages and risks with a doctor, and researching regional local laws, it is important to compare different brands of CBD oil.
There is a selection of CBD products available for purchase online. CBD has been tested and approved for one specific use. Does this mean it is safe and will soon have approval for other uses? The research is emerging to support the use of CBD for numerous conditions, as well as looking closely at safety, side effects, and long-term effects. There has been a significant interest in CBD over the last few years and in cannabis preparations of high CBD content.
This is because of the reported 7 , 8 activity of CBD as an antiepileptic agent, particularly its promise for the treatment of intractable pediatric epilepsy 9. Furthermore, it is perceived by some that the marijuana user's community prefer, or use, materials that have reasonably high levels of CBD along with THC.
Examining the CBD content in the cannabis samples over the years does not support this notion. As shown in Figure 2 , the CBD concentration has declined from approximately 0.
Figure 5 shows the distribution of the number of cannabis samples by CBD content against the overall average by year. While generally speaking confiscated cannabis samples have low CBD content, its concentration has fallen off even lower in the last few years. Plotting the ratio of THC: CBD over time Figure 6 shows the ratio went from approximately 15 to almost 80 over the study period.
This indicates that the drug using community and the cannabis producers are breeding plants for the higher THC content. For the other illicit cannabis preparations hashish and hash oil , there has been only a small number of specimens of these preparations, reflecting the biased preference of the United States cannabis market towards the plant material marijuana and sinsemilla.
Figure S1 shows the concentration of THC and other cannabinoids in confiscated hashish samples over time along with the number of specimens by year.
While there is no consistent trend, it is obvious that there has been an increase in the number of hashish specimens over the last five years and also increase in the hashish potency over time. Figure S2 shows the same data for hash oil samples as for hashish. This indicated that, while intermediate variety of cannabis with both THC and CBD is used in the manufacture of hashish, it appears that hash oil has been prepared from drug type cannabis. With the increased demand for high potency marijuana, cannabis buds are trimmed where large leaves are removed.
While there are several reports concerning the consequences of the use of marijuana, perhaps the most comprehensive is that by Volkow, et al 6. In this review, the authors detailed the negative health consequences associated with the use of marijuana especially in early adolescence.
These included effects on the brain and mental illness, school performance and lifetime achievement, risk of motor vehicle accidents, chronic inflammation of the lungs, and the effects on the vascular system. Furthermore, the authors showed that drug-related Emergency Department ED visits involving marijuana either alone or in combination has increased over time, corresponding to the increase in the potency of the drug over that period of time.
In adolescents aged years old it has been reported that ED visits involving marijuana use has risen in both males and females by While the rate of increase in ED admissions almost parallels the rate of increase in cannabis potency overtime might be coincidental or at least is empirical, that correlation points to the importance of having solid analytical data on cannabis products used by clinicians practicing with Medical Marijuana in the states that have laws allowing the use of these products.
This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript.
The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proof before it is published in its final citable form. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain. The authors report no biomedical financial interests or potential conflicts of interest. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Author manuscript; available in PMC Apr 1.
Botany, 1 Suman Chandra , Ph. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Biol Psychiatry.
See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Associated Data Supplementary Materials. Table 1 Number of specimens, by category, submitted by DEA regional laboratories for analysis, to Open in a separate window. Table 2 Average cannabinoids concentration of cannabis samples confiscated by DEA, to Sinsemilla — Female cannabis plants which have not been pollinated.
May grow from cutting or from seed. May contain some seed if unpollinated the seed will be sterile. Thai Sticks — A form of cannabis from Thailand consisting of premium buds of seedless marijuana in which the leaves and buds are tied on the stems to secure the plant material. Hashish — A concentrated resin cake or ball produced from pressed kief, the detached tricomes and fine material that falls off the cannabis flowers and leaves.
It varies in color from black to golden brown depending on the purity and variety of cultivar it was obtained from. Hash Oil — Obtained from the cannabis plant by solvent extraction, and contains the cannabinoids present in the natural oils of cannabis flowers and leaves.
The solvents are evaporated to leave behind very concentrated oil. Ditchweed — Unattended, wild male and female fiber type cannabis hemp that is native to many mid-western states.
Comparison of marijuana and sinsemilla samples confiscated by DEA from to Supplementary Material Click here to view. Constituents of cannabis sativa L. Is cannabis becoming more potent? Cambridge University Press; ElSohly M, Gul W. Constituents of cannabis sativa. Oxford University Press; Adverse health effects of marijuana use.
N Engl J Med. Mechoulam R, Carlini E. Toward drugs derived from cannabis. Chronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients. Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality.
Drug Abuse Warning Network; Nov 13, Emergency department visits involving marijuana among adolescents aged 15 to
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