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Symptoms may include slow heart beat, low blood pressure, lethargy, dizziness and stomach upset. Triterpenoids and a sterol in leaves. Lancamrone and oleanonic acid are also present in leaves. Symptoms are delayed several hours and may include vomiting, diarrhoea, laboured breathing, dilated pupils, lethargy and weakness.
Few fruits cause death in children. Jaundice circulatory collapse may occur if not attended and finally death. Latent period is variable depending on the quantity ingested. Hyperkalemia is indicator of poisoning. Nausea, numbness, chest pain, difficulty in breathing may be noticed on ingestion of leaf. It is widely cultivated in India as an ornamental.
Research on human poisoning is not widely carried out so far. Leaves; ingestion of large amounts can be toxic. Fever, swollen lips, thirst, nausea, diarrhea; skin irritation upon contact with cell sap. It is grown as ornamental plant. Garden croton, variegated croton. It contains an oil with violently purgative and irritating qualities, which is also suspected of being a co-carcinogen.
Luckily, it tastes dreadful, so accidental poisonings are rare. Even dried plant materials retain their poisonous properties. Volatile oils, resins, alkaloids, and glycosides: It is mildly toxic to humans. All parts of the plant contain needle-like calcium oxalate crystals; if chewed or eaten, can cause immediate pain or a burning sensation and swelling of the lips, mouth, tongue and throat.
The sap may cause contact dermatitis and eye irritation. If difficulty in breathing or swallowing please rush to the doctor. It is a common plant in many households.
Crown of thorns, Christ thorn, Christ plant Eng. It is a very common house plant, and also found in many places as an ornamental. The sap is reported as being corrosive to the skin and eyes, causing skin blisters and temporary blindness. The stout spines can also cause mechanical injury.
The milky sap is corrosive. Skin contact can cause intense burning and blisters. If splashed directly into the eye or transferred from fingers, symptoms can include an immediate burning, tearing, sensitivity to light, red, swollen eyelids, bleeding, and blurred vision. Symptoms may worsen over the next 12 hours, and result in temporary blindness lasting for several days. If the sap is ingested, symptoms can include burning of the lips, tongue and mouth, salivation and vomiting.
Deaths have been recorded from ingestion of the sap. Root bark is purgative. The latex is applied externally to swellings, boils, warts and other skin affections in folk medicine. The whole plant is poisonous. In almost all cases, the latex found in Euphorbia species is toxic on ingestion and highly irritant externally, causing photosensitive skin reactions and severe inflammation, especially when it comes into contact with eyes or open cuts.
It is found as fencing plant and also as an ornamental plant in many households and offices. All parts are toxic. Sap can irritate mucosal membranes. When ingested, the irritation of the mucosal membranes of the stomach and intestines will cause nausea and vomiting.
Ingestion of seed cause vomiting and diarrhoea associated with severe stomach pain. Then go for medical advice. Alkaloids in the latex. When treated in time death can be avoided. Found cultivated in the gardens. Dumb cane, mother in law's tongue.
It is a common ornamental plant in house holds and offices. It can cause a host of unpleasant symptoms, including intense numbing, oral irritation, excessive drooling, and localized swelling.
Don't get panicked, wash the mouth with water, if symptoms persists more than half an hour seek medical help. Atropine, anticholinergic alkaloids are present in leaves; and solanine in unripe fruit. People with with respiratory sensitivities or asthma, have reported difficulty breathing, irritation of the nose and throat, headache, nausea, or other symptoms when exposed to the blossom's powerful scent.
Solanine alkaloids are haemolytic in humans. Barbados lily, Easter lily, cacao lily, cocoa lily and amaryllis lily Eng. It is a widely grown ornamental. The bulb contains alkaloids, including lycorine. It is toxic, especially if eaten in large quantities, causing nausea, vomiting, salivation and possibly diarrhoea.
Caladium, fancy-leaved caladium, angel wings, heart of Jesus, elephant ears Eng. All parts of the plant are poisonous. Due to presence of Calcium oxalate crystals in the sap it causes rash, irritation of skin. If ingested it affects mucous membrane; but no deaths are reported. The main substance responsible is parthenin, which is dangerously toxic.
Contact with the plant causes dermatitis and respiratory malfunction in humans, and dermatitis in cattle and domestic animals. Persons exposed to this plant for prolonged period manifest the symptoms of skin inflammation, eczema, asthma, allergic rhinitis, hay fever, black spots, burning and blisters around eyes. Also aggressive dominance of this weed threatens biodiversity.
Cultivated as an ornamental. The roots, leaves, and flowers are used against snake and scorpion poisoning in China. All parts of the plant yield thick milky latex. It is a poison. The plant also contains cardio glycosides. Applied to the skin, it causes redness and vesication. When taken orally, the juice produces an acrid, bitter taste and burning pain in throat and stomach, salivation, stomatitis, vomiting, diarrhea, dilated pupils, tetanic convulsions, collapse and death.
If the latex comes into contact with eyes it may cause temporary to permenant vision loss. There may not be any pain in eyes.
If treated within hours vision may be recovered. Aristolochic acid is the toxin. The root of Aritolochia indica is used as a medicinal plant to treat many ailments; but the root is a potential carcinogen and nephrotoxin; if over dose is given it will cause complications.
The root smells camphor like odour, it is used to repel snakes. Roots also contain cytotoxic lignin savinin.
In small doses the bulb is cardiac, de-obstruent, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant and stimulant. The bulbs are used in Ayurveda and Unani medications, and hence they are collected unscrupulously by the tribals. If taken in excess, the bulb is a narcotic, acrid poison causing nausea, slow, painful urination, and bloody urine.
Bitter apple, colocynth Eng. It is used as purgative in Ayurveda. Fruit pulp is bitter, when given in large dose it is toxic. The pulp contains Colocynthin, and a phytosterol glycoside citrullol , other glucosides elaterin, elatericin B and dihydro-elatericin B , pectins and albuminoids. The fruit is used as medicine to treat gynec problems in folk medicine.
The fruit and seeds are bitter and poisonous. The fruit and seeds contain alkaloids, saponins and flavonoids. Indrayan, bitter snake gourd Eng. It is widely grown ornamental. The flowers are attractive. The leaves and seeds are used as medicine in traditional medical system.
But in large quantities it is toxic. The seeds are eaten in famine hit areas. They should not be eaten in large quantities because they contain significant concentrations of the extremely toxic chemical carboxyatratyloside.
The mature plant also contains at least four other toxins. If leaf is used as leafy vegetable or more than 10 seeds are eaten the symptoms included vomiting and altered mental states, followed by unconsciousness. Some tribes use the seeds along with Cannabis leaf to sedate people. Xanthium strumarium Edible plants with Poisonous chemicals. The sweet varieties have pleasant flavour. Fresh uncooked tubers are toxic. There are bitter and sweet varieties.
Once harvested, bitter cassava must be treated and prepared properly prior to human or animal consumption, while sweet cassava can be used after simply boiling. Hence they should be cooked or processed. Although it contains lots of good nutrients due to presence of some chemicals in raw soy beans proper methods need to detoxify the seeds. Immunocytochemical and Western blot data were analyzed by using the software GraphPad Prism 6. Flow cytometry was used to assess the MSC immunoprofile.
Characterization of gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cells hGMSCs. Red histograms show the distribution of each antigen expression, whereas Blue histograms represent the distribution of the respective background control. B The gingival connective tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells showed colony-forming potency and plastic-adherent characteristics at day 6. The first CFU appeared after 6 days of the initiation of the primary culture. Moreover, we have proved the multipotent potential of hGMSCs to differentiate in osteoblasts and adipocytes.
This technique allowed us to map about Statistical analysis revealed genes differentially expressed following CBD treatment, among which were down-regulated, while were up-regulated.
According to GO processes, these suppressed genes belonging to the following GO categories: CBD treatment suppressed genes linked to apoptosis, inflammatory and innate immune responses. GO processes indicate their classification in different biological processes.
However, by interrogating the KEGG database for pathway analysis, we found only a pathway predicted to be statistically significant for this class of genes: Specifically, these genes can be classified in the following GO terms: According to KEEG pathway predictions, this group of genes can be clustered in the most following significant pathways: These results altogether indicated that CBD negatively regulates differential pathways involved in inflammatory responses, but in particular the NOD-like receptor signaling pathway.
CBD negatively modulated the transcription of genes involved in NOD-like receptor signaling pathway and other inflammatory pathways. The NALP3-inflammasome has been correlated with several inflammatory conditions and increasing evidences have indicated that the inhibition of the inflammasome could be a promising strategy for treating inflammatory disorders and also for preventing allograft-rejections in cell-based therapies Foley, ; Coll et al.
In order to confirm the ability of CBD to modulate the NALP3-inflammasome, we have performed immunocytochemistry and western blot analyses. A representative negative control of immunocytochemistry is showed in Supplementary Material. The graph represented the densytometric quantitative analysis.
Western blot analysis for CASP1. Western blot analysis for CB1R. Following infusion of MSCs, the hostile environment could induce apoptosis few hours after transplantation. Thus, researchers had tried to develop new strategies to improve survival of MSCs, such as preconditioning of MSCs by cultivation under peroxide hydrogen, hypoxic and serum deprivation Farzaneh Taban et al.
Here, we have previously showed that CBD treatment in hGMSCs inhibited the expression of several genes correlated to the apoptosis, according to the GO biological processes. GO terms indicate their classification in different biological processes. Moreover, we have observed a negative staining for the pro-apoptotic mediator Bax in CBD-hGMSCs and positive staining for the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, by immunocytochemistry.
Our results suggested that CBD treatment may improve stem cell survival through two complementary strategies: MSCs have been reported to exert immunosuppressive properties in the host Schu et al. However, evidence also suggests that they can also elicit a allogeneic immune response Nauta et al.
Thus, we investigated whether CBD was able to modulate the cell surface expression of immunogenic markers. We detected a differential expression of the well-known mesenchymal markers: None pathway statistically significant was found for this group of genes, according to KEEG database.
The ability of hGMSCs to self-renew, to differentiate into different tissues, together with their easy accessibility and abundance, renders them a promising alternative source of MSCs for regenerative medicine. However, prior to their clinical applications, further investigations are required to ensure that they do not elicit immune or inflammatory responses that could affect their efficacy and survival in vivo.
In this work, we asked whether preconditioning donor cells hGMSCs with CBD, before transplantation in the host, could modify their gene expression profile, improving their therapeutic efficacy. Global gene expression data have showed that CBD modulated the expression of genes in hGMSCs, among which, we found that CBD treatment downregulated the expression of genes correlated to inflammation and apoptosis.
Specifically, we have detected a reduced expression of several key genes involved in the NOD-like receptor signaling and more specifically, belonging to the NALP3 inflammasome complex. The NALP3-inflammasome could be considered as an integrated signaling system which converges multiple signaling pathways such as cell death and innate immune responses Nakanishi et al.
Moreover, the blockade of CB1R, through the administration of a specific antagonist, led to increased NF-kB expression, while no statistically changes were observed after the exposure to CB2R antagonist, indicating a direct involvement of CB1R in this signaling. Although a direct modulation of the inflammasome complex by the cannabinoid receptors CB1R and CB2R, has been already investigated by previous studies, it role remains still controversial.
Indeed, it has been reported that CB2R activation, by inhibiting the NLRP3-inflammasome pathway, played a protective role in experimental models of inflammatory and autoimmune disorders Shao et al. Conversely, Jourdan et al. However, accumulating evidences have highlighted the NALP3 inflammasome as potential target for treating inflammation and for preventing graft failures Foley, ; Jankovic et al.
All these evidences suggested that preconditioning hGMSCs with CBD might be a strategy to improve cell engraftment in the context of stem cell-based therapy. Following MSCs infusion, the hostile environment could induce apoptosis few hours after transplantation, as consequence, new strategies to counteract apoptosis or to improve survival of MSCs are needed.
In this study, we have showed that CBD pre-treatment in hGMSCs correlated with the downregulation of several genes involved in apoptosis. Immune rejection is one of the major complication that may occur with stem cell transplantation. Several studies reported that CBD could have a role in the inhibition of the graft rejection T-cells mediated Kaplan et al.
The overexpression of these markers has been associated with improved MSCs therapeutic efficacy Ode et al. Interestingly, the downregulation of CD90, CD44, and CD has been linked to a more differentiated stem cell phenotype and to a less tumorigenic potential Moraes et al. CD, and CD are surface markers expressed by different cell types of the immune system Zhang et al. In particular, CD47 is expressed on most innate immune cells able to dampen the inflammatory immune response Latour et al.
Of note, transgenic overexpression of human DAF is a strategy to reduce the immune rejection complement-mediated in xenotransplants Liu et al. Based on our results, we suggested that CBD treatment by modifying the molecular immunophenotype of hGMSCs, make them less immunogenic.
A less immunogenic phenotype can potentially prevent the allogenic immune responses without requiring a systemic immune suppression in the host. This method could represent an interesting strategy for reducing the risk of immune reactions following cell transplantation, and in parallel, for increasing their survival and thus, their long-term therapeutic efficacy. RL wrote the manuscript.
DS provided technical support for NGS experiments and data analysis. FD and MM were involved in acquisition, analysis and interpretation of data and helped in revising the manuscript critically for important intellectual content.
The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Front Physiol v.
Published online Nov Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This article was submitted to Clinical and Translational Physiology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Physiology. Received Sep 2; Accepted Nov 4. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.
No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Associated Data Supplementary Materials Image1. Introduction During the last decades, Mesenchymal Stem Cells MSCs have attracted much attention for their ability to transdifferentiate into several tissues, under specific conditions, and therefore, to potentially reconstitute the damaged organs and tissues Zhang et al.
Isolation and immunophenotyping of hGMSCs hGMSCs culture establishment Gingival tissue biopsies were obtained from five healthy adult volunteers with no gingival inflammation.
Cytofluorimetric evaluation Samples were stained for surface or intracellular antigens, as previously described Cianci et al. Open in a separate window. After having upper and lower spine fusions I've continued to have pain daily. The flavor is light and crisp, no after taste like another brand I tried.
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