Read chapter 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Manufacturing firms--large and small--face massive change and adjustment as they move from a . However, with both a sparse hominin fossil record and an incomplete understanding of past climates, the particular effect of the environment on hominin evolution remains speculative. enced human evolution will require a coordinated, focused, and cross-disciplinary research program. Read chapter 5 Conclusions and Recommendations: Institutional Arrangements for Space Station Research.
Patenting in most renewable energy areas has increased more than five-fold in the last two decades. Making patent information more accessible may help to accelerate innovation. Patent information can be made more accessible and easy to under-stand, for example through translations and a user-friendly information platform. Many patents in solar PV and wind were filed years ago and are reaching the end of their terms, unless they have not been abandoned or revoked in the countries where they applied.
This means the information can soon be freely used, and may already be available for use in locations where patent protection was not sought. In any case the filings were usually limited to key markets, and very few renewable energy patents have been filed outside OECD countries and China. This means that patents in the renewable energy sector should be considered as a source of innovation for developing countries, not as a constraint to innovation.
Increasing patent quality will enhance the utility of patents as a source of technical information. Governments should ensure that applications examined by their patent offices are of the highest possible quality.
Renewable energy patent information can provide valuable insights into: IRENA's next steps to further work on the role of patents in renewable energy technology development and application include: IRENA will continue working with relevant stakeholders, including WIPO and EPO, to develop a better understanding of the role of patents in RET innovation and explore ways of tapping into patent information as a rich information source for RET, in order to help countries use this information to stimulate technological innovation.
Together with its partners, IRENA can develop a pilot information platform aiming at providing accurate and up-to-date information, including information on patents and relevant publications, to enhance access for RET innovation. The pilot platform can be expanded and refined based on the demand for information services from users. The analysis of renewable energy patent information in specific application areas will be expanded in order to better understand the latest overview and innovation in RET application.
The case study on renewable energy desalination has provided valuable insights and will be expanded to other innovative technology felds such as ocean energy technology. Work related to patents will be part of a larger framework of innovation for RETs, which includes other supply factors and enabling frameworks including standards, technology value chain, and technology co-operation.
Based on the studies already conducted, and in collaboration with key partners, IRENA will extend the concept of the patent information platform development in to a larger framework to include other information on innovation instruments, in particular standards for RETs. A simplified fracture energy-based approach for predicting crack initiation i. A systematic parametric study showed that the integrated performance model provided reasonable predictions and expected trends for both crack initiation and propagation.
A limited calibration and validation using data from field sections indicated that the performance model reasonably represents and accounts for the most significant factors that influence top-down cracking in the field, but it is not ready or intended for immediate implementation because 1 the model eventually implemented in the MEPDG should capture damage zone effects, for which the VECD-based model is needed, and 2 further verification of sub-models is needed.
Furthermore, given the general nature of the component models, they can also form the basis for the next-generation MEPDG performance model to predict multiple cracking distresses simultaneously, including top-down cracking, bottom-up cracking, and thermal cracking. Full integration of the two models is necessary for accurate performance prediction to establish the confidence needed for implementation of a reliable MEPDG.
Furthermore, the resulting model would be a suitable candidate for implementation as the next generation performance model for bottom-up cracking and thermal cracking.
The general nature of the targeted system, which can predict damage and crack propagation anywhere in the pavement system, considering the combined effects of both load and environment, forms the basis for a single system to deal with multiple cracking distresses simultaneously.
It is emphasized that the simplified integrated system developed in this study is not ready nor intended for immediate implementation, because 1 it is necessary to evaluate damage zone effects on performance predictions, for which the VECD-based crack initiation model is needed; 2 it is necessary to further verify the material property sub-models developed in this study i.
The intent of the simplified integrated system was to demonstrate the potential of a fully integrated system, while gaining experience in dealing with issues relative to integration of model components that involve very different functions e. The experiences gained were of great benefit in helping to formulate a plan for integrating, calibrating, and validating the two model components. It is proposed that future development progress as described in the following two phases:.
As a minimum, the following considerations are recommended to develop a top-down cracking performance model for the MEPDG based on the two primary model components developed in this study: There is a need to unify the material property aging submodels developed for the VECD-based and HMA-FM-based component models, including submodels for viscoelastic properties and damage and fracture properties.
Also, the unified healing model should be verified using data under various conditions that are needed for top-down cracking simulations. It is recommended that the energy-based failure criteria defined and used in the HMA-FM-based model be incorporated into the VECD system, so that a unified and more advanced failure criterion is used by both.
Also, the effects of tire type and cross slope on shear-induced tension near the tire edge should be considered for incorporation into the unified near-tire mechanism.
There is a need to reduce the computer run time of the VECD-based model through the improvement, refinement, and calibration of the sub- models which are included in the analysis system. A calibration and validation effort with a broader range of field sections is needed to ensure the accuracy of the integrated top-down cracking performance model.
The model developed in Phase One includes modules for linear-elastic unbound paving materials. For more accurate predictions, enhancements are needed to: It would be more realistic to use an equivalent daily loading history that has a more representative load spectra and distribution i. Also, load wander likely plays a role in performance associated with the near-tire mechanism. Therefore, it should be considered in future model development. Models for Initiation and Propagation explores mechanistic-based models for predicting top-down cracking in hot-mix asphalt layers for use in mechanistic-empirical procedures for design and analysis of new and rehabilitated flexible pavements.
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5. Conclusions and recommendations. 1. Sharks have an unusual combination of biological characteristics: slow growth, delayed maturation, long reproductive. 5. Conclusions and Recommendations. The workshop adopted specific recommendations on how to continue the monitoring of the economic viability of marine. 5. Conclusions and Recommendations. The participants to the Expert Consultation prepared a number of conclusions and recommendations, which were.