Takeaway. CBD and THC both have medical benefits. Before you purchase or use any of them, know the laws in your state. Also, consider the possibility for side effects and interactions with other drugs you're taking. . Today, more and more people are using the term cannabis to refer to weed. I want to clarify that neither CBD or THC is better than the other. Both cannabinoids offer tremendous health benefits, and either both or one of. Here's your guide to hemp oil, CBD oil, and all the different cannabinoids. more and more states are voting in favor of recreational and/or medical marijuana. CBD and THC have been described as "sister molecules" and one of the most.
Better THC Is Cannabinoid Other? One CBD: vs Than the
In fact, evidence suggests that it actually interferes with the activity of the CB1 receptor, especially in the presence of THC. When THC and CBD work together to affect CB1 receptor activity, users tend to feel a more mellow, nuanced subjective high and have a much lower chance of experiencing paranoia compared to the effects felt when CBD is absent.
The presence of both cannabinoids balances the effects. Although we are just beginning to understand the isolated effects of cannabinoids such as CBN , CBC, and CBG, their ability to bind to targets in the brain means they could potentially enhance, interfere with, prolong, or in some other way modulate the effects of THC.
An Introduction to Your Endocannabinoid System. Cannabis and Your Body. What would you like to learn about? Products and How to Consume. Return Home View All. But he is obliged to point out that the product is a dietary supplement, and no clinical claims can be made for it.
These beneficial compounds include a range of phytocannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids that work together. The truth is that no one knows precisely what any of these molecules are doing to us. It is a case of finding the effects first and working backwards to understand the mechanisms. An earlier version referred to a beer from Cloud 9 Brewing. The brewery changed its name to Green Times Brewing in September. This has been corrected. Alternative medicine Medical research Cannabis features.
Order by newest oldest recommendations. Shortly after, a second receptor, CB2R, was discovered [ Munro et al. Around the same time, the existence of the endocannabinoid system was confirmed by Devane and colleagues following the extraction of a molecule, an ethanolamine of arachidonic acid AEA , which bound to these receptors [ Devane et al.
Mechoulam and colleagues isolated the second endocannabinoid neurotransmitter, 2-arachidonylglycerol 2-AG , 3 years later [ Mechoulam et al. Research in more recent years has shown that dTHC, as a partial agonist, resembles anandamide in its CB1 affinity, albeit with less efficacy than anandamide, whilst displaying even lower efficacy at CB2Rs than at CB1Rs in vitro [ Pertwee, ]. CB1Rs are mainly in the brain, particularly in the substantia nigra, the basal ganglia, limbic system, hippocampus and cerebellum, but are also expressed in the peripheral nervous system, liver, thyroid, uterus, bones and testicular tissue [ Russo and Guy, ; Pagotto et al.
CB2Rs are mostly expressed in immune cells, spleen and the gastrointestinal system, and to some extent in the brain and peripheral nervous system [ Izzo, ; Pertwee, ]. Interestingly, both CB1 and CB2Rs are also found in human placenta and have been shown to play a role in regulating serotonin transporter activity [ Kenney et al.
Indeed further research has revealed that the endocannabinoid system also plays a significant role in various aspects of human reproduction [ Taylor et al. In the brain, CB1Rs are found at the terminals of central and peripheral neurons, where they mostly mediate inhibitory action on ongoing release of a number of excitatory and inhibitory dopaminergic, gamma-aminobutyric acid GABA , glutamatergic, serotoninergic, noradrenalin and acetylcholine neurotransmitter systems Figure 1.
Because of the involvement of these systems they affect functions such as cognition, memory, motor movements and pain perception [ Howlett et al. The release of endocannabinoids, such as AEA and 2-AG, from the postsynaptic sites to the synaptic cleft occur in response to elevation of intracellular calcium and they then act as retrograde neurotransmitters on presynaptically located CB1Rs to maintain homeostasis and prevent the excessive neuronal activity [ Howlett et al.
They are then rapidly removed from the extracellular space by cannabinoid transporters, often referred to as anandamide membrane transporters, which facilitate their breakdown by internalizing the molecule and allowing access to fatty acid amide hydrolase [ Pertwee, ]. Despite its significance in the endocannabinoid system, little is known about the cannabinoid transporters.
When cannabis is used, dTHC as a partial agonist binds to CB1R and acts in a less selective manner in inhibiting the release of neurotransmitters normally modulated by endocannabinoids such as AEA and 2-AG. It has been putatively suggested that it may also increase the release of dopamine, glutamate and acetylcholine in certain brain regions, possibly by inhibiting the release of an inhibitory neurotransmitter like GABA onto dopamine, glutamate or acetylcholine-releasing neurons [ Bhattacharyya et al.
Endocannabinoids are removed from the extracellular space by cannabinoid transporters. However, the functionalities of the CB1Rs are not always straightforward due to complex interactions with the other neurotransmitter systems. GPCRs sense an external molecule outside the nerve cell and by contact with the molecule can signal transduction pathways, which ultimately lead to cellular responses.
External ligands such as dTHC, various synthetic compounds and endocannabinoids such as anandamide can activate these receptors [ Pertwee et al. Interestingly some alkylamides from the Echinacea plant can also bind to the CB2Rs even more strongly than the endogenous cannabinoids [ Raduner et al.
Normally GPCRs are linked together to form a receptor complex. However, the signalling effects can be complex due to CB1Rs forming heteromers, which can be defined as having different parts such as subunits, with two or more other GPCRs, particularly if they are densely expressed in the same neuron. For instance, a CB1R can form a heteromer with dopamine D2 receptor, or in another instance it can also form a heteromer with two other receptors such as dopamine D2 and adenosine A2A [ Navarro et al.
Interestingly, as a result, ligand bindings can produce unexpected pharmacological effects. For instance, in a heteromer complex, not only the antagonist of CB1R but also the other receptor antagonist can block the inhibitory effect of CB1R agonist. This has been demonstrated by Marcellino and colleagues when the CB1R antagonist rimonabant and the specific A2AR antagonist MSX-3 blocked the inhibitory effect of CB1 agonist on D2-like receptor agonist induced hyperlocomotion in rats [ Marcellino et al.
Receptor heteromers provide better understanding of how these different neurotransmitter systems interact with each other. The authors propose that it is likely that functional CB1—A2A—D2 receptor heteromers can be found in the dendritic spines of GABAergic enkephalinergic neurons, where they are highly coexpressed, and their analysis provides new information on the role of endocannabinoids in striatal function, which can be considered as retrograde signals that inhibit neurotransmitter release.
Further evidence for the existence of D2 and CB1Rs in ventral striatum is provided by electron microscopy analysis, which confirms the relevance to the rewarding and euphoric, as well as motor effects produced by cannabis, by enhancing dopamine levels particularly in the nucleus accumbens [ Pickel et al. The authors point out that there is a bidirectional cross antagonism which involves the antagonists of either receptor to block the other.
In more recent years, three other novel receptor candidates, GPR18, GPR19 and GPR55, have been discovered, as well as non-CB1Rs and non-CB2Rs, but knowledge on these systems is incomplete and the discussion on whether or not they meet the criteria to qualify as receptors or channels is ongoing [ Mackie and Stella, ; Pertwee et al.
The involvement of the particular neural regions and the neurotransmitter systems here is significant due to the fact that the very same brain areas and neurotransmitter systems are also implicated in psychoses, particularly in schizophrenia [ van Os and Kapur, ; Smieskova et al.
Available evidence indicates that we do not yet have a complete understanding of the varied functions of the endocannabinoid system, which is widely distributed both in the brain and in the peripheral system and most glands and organs in the body. Even though our knowledge on the role of the endocannabinoid system is still evolving, the available evidence indicates that this system has multiple regulatory roles in neuronal, vascular, metabolic, immune and reproductory systems.
As mentioned previously, the on-demand regulatory role on other neurotransmitter systems clearly affect functions such as cognition, memory, motor movements and pain perception [ Howlett et al. The cannabis plant has two main subspecies, Cannabis indica and Cannabis sativa , and they can be differentiated by their different physical characteristics. Indica -dominant strains are short plants with broad, dark green leaves and have higher cannabidiol content than the sativa plants in which THC content is higher.
Sativa- dominant strains are usually taller and have thin leaves with a pale green colour. Due to its higher THC content, C. It is a complex plant with about chemical entities, of which more than 60 are cannabinoid compounds [ Dewey, ]. In the plant, cannabinoids are synthesized and accumulated as cannabinoid acids, but when the herbal product is dried, stored and heated, the acids decarboxylize gradually into their proper forms, such as CBD or dTHC [ De Meijer et al.
Originally it was thought that CBD was the metabolic parent to dTHC, but it was later found that its biosynthesis occurs according to a genetically determined ratio [ Russo and Guy, ].
Even though the chemical structures of all four compounds are similar, their pharmacological effects can be very different. The most researched compounds of the plant are dTHC and CBD and therefore we will mainly focus on these two compounds and their differences. Natural compounds of the cannabis plant are also referred to as phytocannabinoids of which dTHC is the main psychoactive ingredient and has been widely researched both in animals and humans.
It characteristically produces, in a dose-dependent manner, hypoactivity, hypothermia, spatial and verbal short-term memory impairment [Hayakawa et al. However, the second major compound, CBD, does not affect locomotor activity, body temperature or memory on its own. The available research indicates that the main two compounds, dTHC and CBD, whilst having similar effects in certain domains, also have almost opposite effects to one another in other aspects [ Carlini et al.
Table 1 summarizes the varying effects of these two compounds. Effects of tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, adapted and updated from Russo and Guy . In fact the different and opposing effects of the main two compounds of the plant were noticed in some early studies. In a double-blind study with 40 healthy volunteers, Karniol and colleagues orally administered dTHC and CBD and the mixtures of the two together, whilst pulse rate, time production tasks and psychological reactions were measured [ Karniol et al.
Whilst dTHC alone increased pulse rate, disturbed time tasks and induced strong psychological reactions in the subjects, CBD alone provoked no such effects.
CBD also decreased the anxiety component of dTHC effects in such a way that the subjects reported more pleasurable effects. Most recently there have been a number of drug challenge studies with sound methodologies examining the effects of both of these compounds. Our group carried out a number of double-blind, pseudo-randomized studies on healthy volunteers who had previous minimal exposure to cannabis.
All participants were administered 10 mg of dTHC, mg of CBD and placebo flour in three different functional magnetic resonance imaging sessions while performing a response inhibition task, a verbal memory task, an emotional task viewing fearful faces and an auditory and visual sensory processing task.
The overall concluding results showed that dTHC and CBD had different behavioural effects and also, at times, opposing brain activation in various regions [ Borgwardt et al. DTHC caused transient psychotic symptoms and increased the levels of anxiety, intoxication and sedation, whilst CBD had no significant effect on behaviour or these parameters.
In relation to the imaging data, during the response inhibition task, relative to placebo, dTHC attenuated the engagement of brain regions that normally mediate response inhibition, whilst CBD modulated activity in regions not implicated with this task [ Borgwardt et al. During the verbal learning and retrieval of word pair tasks, dTHC modulated activity in mediotemporal and ventrostriatal regions, whilst CBD had no such effect [ Bhattacharyya et al. During an emotional processing task dTHC and CBD had clearly distinct effects on the neural, electrodermal and symptomatic response to fearful faces [ Fusar-Poli et al.
Our results suggest that the effects of CBD on activation in limbic and paralimbic regions may contribute to its ability to reduce autonomic arousal and subjective anxiety, whereas the anxiogenic effects of dTHC may be related to effects in other brain regions. During the auditory task, again these two compounds had opposite effects in the superior temporal cortex when subjects listened to speech and in the occipital cortex during visual processing [ Winton-Brown et al.
Our group also assessed whether pretreatment with CBD could prevent the acute psychotic symptoms induced by dTHC when six healthy volunteers were administered dTHC intravenously on two occasions, after placebo or CBD pretreatment [ Bhattacharyya et al. Both animal and human studies indicate that CBD has anxiolytic properties.
In fact in a recent double-blind study carried out on patients with generalized social anxiety disorder, it was found that relative to placebo, CBD significantly reduced subjective anxiety and its effect was related to its activity on limbic and paralimbic areas as shown by single photon emission computed tomography [ Crippa et al.
CBD has also been proposed to have antipsychotic effects and is considered a potential antipsychotic medicine, particularly due its relatively low side-effect profile [ Zuardi et al. Another interesting compound of the plant, dtetrahydrocannabivarin dTHCV , a novel CB1R antagonist, also exerts potentially useful actions in the treatment of epilepsy and obesity [ Pertwee, ; Izzo et al. A review of this compound, along with dTHC and CBD by Pertwee suggests that plant extractions of d - 9-THCV produces its antiobesity effects more by increasing energy expenditure than by reducing food intake [ Pertwee, ].
The author also points out that a medicine such as dTHCV, by simultaneously blocking CB1Rs and activating CB2Rs, may have potential for the management of disorders such as chronic liver disease and obesity, particularly when these are associated with inflammation. However, the CBD content was found to be extremely low in more recent times.
More recently, a meta-analysis to assess the potency of cannabis from to was carried out.
Cannabis, a complex plant: different compounds and different effects on individuals
As a natural pain-relief drug, some experts consider cannabis more suitable for your Different types of strains, however, suit different pain conditions, so before an informed choice about whether it's better to use a high-THC or high-CBD. Both THC & CBD interact with cannabinoid receptors, but the types of effects brought Because of this trait, CBD appears more frequently than THC in dietary and CBD has the same chemical formula as THC, with the atoms in a different . There is a big difference between THC & CBD -- one is psychoactive and the other is not. Find out which one gets you high and why the other doesn't. and one thing becomes clear: there's far more to these incredible cannabinoids than their.