Take this medication regularly to get the most benefit from it. to follow the diet to get the most benefit from this medication and to prevent serious side effects. Learn more about Resveratrol uses, effectiveness, possible side effects, interactions, dosage, user ratings and products that contain Resveratrol. A side-effect is an unwanted symptom caused by medical treatment. of problems associated with the use of medicines, including side effects. as herbal remedies, are safer because they are derived from natural sources. Ask your doctor or pharmacist questions so you can clearly understand the benefits and risks of.
Effects, Medical Side Applications, Benefits, Sources,
With the development of better technology to deliver pure far infrared radiation FIR , the benefits from its effects have widened. Nowadays, specialty FIR emitting heat lamps and garments made up of filaments fibers impregnated with FIR emitting nanoparticles are becoming used to deliver these thermal radiation effects.
In this paper we explore the use of FIR as a promising treatment modality for certain medical conditions. We cover both traditional applications and novel applications, and survey the latest technological advancements and most recent scientific studies in the field. It lies between the long wavelength red edge of the visible and the short edge of the terahertz starting at 3 THz spectral bands Figure 1. An alternative classification provided in ISO standard for the sub-division of the IR ranges is given in Table 2.
In the IR radiation bands, only FIR transfers energy purely in the form of heat which can be perceived by the thermoreceptors in human skin as radiant heat [ 1 ]. In essence, all matter absorbs electromagnetic radiation to some degree and an object that absorbs all radiation falling on it at all wavelengths and frequencies is called a black body, i. In this type of spectrum, spectral peaks at characteristic frequencies are shifted to higher values shorter wavelengths with increasing temperature values.
For instance, at room temperature most of the emission of the black body is in the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. At a typical environmental background temperature, which is around K, the peak emission is at about 9. Peak shifts of some representative black body temperatures and the range of electromagnetic radiation they fall into are given in Figure 2A, B.
At the cellular level, the underlying biophysical mechanisms of the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with living cells can be framed in terms of altered cell membrane potentials and altered mitochondrial metabolism [ 2 ]. FIR energy photons with quantum energy levels of There are six vibrational modes covering symmetric and antisymmetric stretching, scissoring, rocking, wagging and twisting.
Considering the high concentration of water in biological systems, association of water molecules with ions solvation effect , the dielectric properties of the water and the large dipole moment that this effect generates, this will be a dominant factor in biological solutions.
It is known that at lower frequencies water molecules are able to rotate freely in an oscillating electric field with little or almost no energy loss. The dielectric relaxation of water at K is around 25 GHz where the rotational response of the dipoles to the electromagnetic field is spread over a broad frequency range. These specifically located charged groups associate with the water molecules and by doing this influence the dielectric behavior of the whole molecular-assembly, which in turn effects its biologic functioning.
Thus, the dielectric properties of tissues even at cellular level depend on and vary with the water content. For these reasons, water content is a critical factor in the interaction between FIR and living organisms.
In this regard, the dynamics of water-clusters has attracted considerable interest since there is a noticeable difference with respect to the dynamics of bulk-liquid-water, and this may have significant implications in biological environments. Local changes in the molecular environment caused by solvation or confinement are shown to affect substantially the translational and vibrational modes in FIR frequency range.
It is found that water cluster size and temperature affect the FIR absorption spectrum significantly [ 3 ]. FIR wavelength is too long to be perceived by the eyes, however, the body experiences its energy as a gentle radiant heat which can penetrate up to 1.
FIR energy is sufficient to exert rotational and vibrational modes of motion in bonds forming the molecules including the water molecules as well as resonate with cellular frequencies. Resulting epidermal temperature is higher when the skin is irradiated with FIR than if similar thermal loads from shorter wavelengths are used. The prolonged erythermal response due to FIR exposure has been proposed to be due to increased epidermal temperatures associated with it, but levels of FIR that do not produce any detectable skin heating can also have biological effects.
IR saunas are often used and the most effective types have ceramic FIR emitting panels that remain cool to the touch. However, most IR saunas on the market do not use the expensive FIR panels, which can be touched since they remain always cold. There have been a few laboratory studies that have reported the biological effects of FIR.
In the study, FIR exposure a low non-thermal irradiance of 0. It was observed that FIR exposure induced the nuclear translocation of promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger protein in the cells.
These data provide information on how FIR exposure could affect microcirculation, independent from thermal effects. The same group had previously shown that non-thermal FIR therapy increased skin blood flow in rats [ 5 ]. After constant exposure to FIR, wound healing was significantly quickened and transforming growth factor TGF -beta1 expressing myofibroblasts and collagen content were increased. Along the same lines, Akasaki et al. Following reports that FIR therapy upregulated the expression of arterial eNOS in hamsters and it is known that NO constitutively produced by eNOS plays an important role in angiogenesis they took a step further to investigate whether the FIR therapy increases angiogenesis in mice with the hindlimb ischemia.
Laser-Doppler perfusion imaging demonstrated that at the ischemic limb, blood perfusion ratio in the irradiated group increased significantly in comparison with the control group 0. Western blotting showed that thermal therapy has increased markedly the hindlimb eNOS expression. The study led to the conclusion that angiogenesis can be induced via eNOS using FIR thermal therapy in mice with hindlimb ischemia.
The overall observation was that the FIR effect varied in these five cancer cell line types, as can be expected. A summary of the results of this study indicated that the proliferation-suppressing effect of FIR, in some cancer cell lines, is controlled by the basal expression level of the HSP70A. These findings suggest that FIR irradiation may be used as an effective medical treatment avenue for some cancer cells which have low levels of HSP FIR emitting ceramics have been known for some time [ 9 , 10 ].
All ceramics have the property of emitting IR radiation depending on their temperature. In the age of gas lighting, ceramic mantles were heated by gas flames to emit both IR and visible radiation depending on the temperature attained.
The exact chemical composition of the ceramic material governs the relationship between the temperature and the amount of IR radiation. The boron-silicate mineral, tourmaline known as a gemstone in its crystalline form when milled into fine powders also emits FIR [ 12 ] and the characteristics of the FIR emission depend on the particle size. Preparations containing tourmaline powder have been applied to the skin with the aim of affecting the blood flow [ 13 ].
In a similar manner discs of FIR emitting ceramics have been attached to the skin with the intent of producing a beneficial effect see later. Small particles nanoparticles and microparticles of FIR-emitting ceramic material have been incorporated into fibers that are then woven into fabrics.
These fabrics can be manufactured into various garments that can be worn on different parts of the body. When FIR emitting ceramics or fabrics are employed as therapeutic devices, it is pertinent to analyze the thermodynamics of the process. The first law of thermodynamics states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed.
Heat molecular vibrational energy is transferred from one body to another in three forms: Thus, it is clear that the principle source of energy needed to power the FIR emission from the garments comes from the human body, since it is at a significantly higher temperature than the surrounding air. It is plausible that FIR emitted from the skin is absorbed by the ceramic particles, which then re-emit the same FIR back to the skin.
Although this may appear to be an energy neutral process and to cancel itself out, this is not in fact the case because the FIR emitting material will prevent the loss of FIR that would otherwise have escaped through normal clothing.
However the same effect could have been achieved with a FIR reflective foil suit or suchlike. Other sources of heat that can transfer energy from the body to the ceramic particles with a net gain of FIR are either convection, conduction, or both. The balance between conduction and convection will depend on how close the contact is between the garment and the skin. If the garment is skin tight, then conduction may be important, while if it is loose fitting then convection heating up a layer of air between the skin and the garment may be important.
Ting-Kai Leung and colleagues have studied the effect of FIR-emitting ceramic powders in a range of biological studies [ 14 — 19 ]. In one set of studies, they cultured murine myoblast cells C2C12 with bags of ceramic powder under the culture plates and found that FIR irradiation improved cell viability and prevented lactate dehydrogenase release under hydrogen peroxide H 2 O 2 -mediated oxidative stress, and also elevated the intracellular levels of NO and calmodulin [ 14 ].
In the study, they used electro-stimulation of amphibian skeletal muscle and found that FIR emitting ceramics delayed the onset of fatigue, induced by muscle contractions [ 14 ]. In another set of studies, they showed that ceramic-emitted FIR cFIR could increase the generation of intracellular NO in breast cancer cells [ 15 ] and inhibit growth of murine melanoma cells [ 16 ]. In this study [ 15 ] it was shown that cFIR significantly inhibited intracellular peroxide levels and lipopolysaccharide LPS -induced peroxide production by macrophages.
The same research group went on to study a rabbit model of rheumatoid arthritis in which rabbits received intra-articular injections of LPS to induce inflammation that mimics the rheumatoid arthritis [ 18 ]. As we grow older, our bone mineral density decreases. By having a diet that is rich in potassium, our bone formation can actually increase. This results in increased bone mineral density and healthier bones. Our bodies cannot store potassium, that's why it's so important for us to have a diet rich enough in this valuable nutrient.
In the absence of a healthy diet, we could be deficient in potassium without even knowing it. If we don't get enough potassium, we may suffer from heart disease, high blood pressure, or digestive and muscle disorders, among other conditions. Here is a table that shows how much potassium people of different age groups' should have per day. Do you love green leafy vegetables? What do you think about beans?
If you do, the good news is, these are key sources of potassium that can help you meet your daily intake of this essential element. Here are some excellent potassium-rich sources, shown in milligrams per serving size. If you are not too fond of the previously mentioned food sources, there are others that also have a high potassium content. Here are some fruits and other vegetables that are also great sources of potassium.
Now that we've identified some great food sources for potassium, we can try to include them in our diet. If you've lost too much of the nutrient due to illness or don't get enough in your regular diet, then you can use potassium supplements.
While potassium is beneficial to our bodies, too much of a good thing can also be harmful. In particular, too much can be harmful to people with kidney disorders. Older people whose kidneys are less able to remove potassium from their blood can also be affected. What happens if you have too much potassium intake?
In more extreme instances, you may develop kidney issues, heart disease, nausea, dizziness, and even muscle paralysis. You could also experience common gastrointestinal issues like diarrhea and stomach pain or discomfort. Potassium is a chemical element classified as an alkali metal and symbolized by the letter 'K' on the periodic table. It's a solid with a silvery-white appearance.
Potassium is an essential nutrient, without which our bodies would not function properly. For example, as an electrolyte, it helps conduct electrical charges that make our muscles contract. It can also lower blood pressure, reduce the risk of stroke, and increase our bone mineral density.
Potassium can be found in many natural food sources, such as green leafy vegetables, beans, and fruit. By having a balanced diet, we may be able to meet our daily potassium requirement without having to take supplements. Although potassium has many benefits, an excess intake of this nutrient can have negative side effects on our bodies.
These include gastrointestinal and kidney issues, dizziness, nausea, or even muscle paralysis. The information on this site is for your information only and is not a substitute for professional medical advice. To unlock this lesson you must be a Study. Did you know… We have over college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1, colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree.
Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level. To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page. Not sure what college you want to attend yet? The videos on Study. Explore over 4, video courses. The distinction between adverse and nonadverse effects is a major undertaking when a new drug is developed and tested before marketing it. These studies are used to define the dosage to be used in human testing phase I , as well as to calculate the maximum admissible daily intake.
Imperfections in clinical trials, such as insufficient number of patients or short duration, sometimes lead to public health disasters, such as those of fenfluramine the so-called fen-phen episode , thalidomide and, more recently, of cerivastatin Baycol, Lipobay and rofecoxib Vioxx , where drastic adverse effects were observed, such as teratogenesis , pulmonary hypertension , stroke , heart disease , neuropathy , and a significant number of deaths, causing the forced or voluntary withdrawal of the drug from the market.
Most drugs have a large list of nonsevere or mild adverse effects which do not rule out continued usage. These effects, which have a widely variable incidence according to individual sensitivity, include nausea , dizziness , diarrhea , malaise , vomiting , headache , dermatitis , dry mouth, etc. These can be considered a form of pseudo-allergic reaction, as not all users experience these effects; many users experience none at all. Drugs contain side effects which is the reason why commercials or advertisements put many disclaimers about the unwanted symptoms after taking the drug s.
Sometimes, putative medical adverse effects are regarded as controversial and generate heated discussions in society and lawsuits against drug manufacturers. One example is the recent controversy as to whether autism was linked to the MMR vaccine or by thiomersal , a mercury -based preservative used in some vaccines.
No link has been found in several large studies, and despite removal of thimerosal from vaccines a decade ago the rate of autism has not decreased as would be expected if it had been the causative agent. Another instance is the potential adverse effects of silicone breast implants , which led to hundreds of thousands of litigations against manufacturers of gel-based implants, due to allegations of damage to the immune system which have not yet been conclusively proven. Due to the exceedingly high impact on public health of widely used medications, such as hormonal contraception and hormone replacement therapy , which may affect millions of users, even marginal probabilities of adverse effects of a severe nature, such as breast cancer , have led to public outcry and changes in medical therapy, although its benefits largely surpassed the statistical risks.
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Far infrared radiation (FIR): its biological effects and medical applications
The L-form is found in foods and used to produce proteins in your body, while the D-form can be synthesized for use in certain medical. The most common use for medical marijuana in the United States is for pain control. cost) from pain but without the psychedelic side effects of the THC. .. provide me with a few reliable sources, or maybe a list of benefits?. Niacin (Vitamin B3): Benefits & Side Effects Sources of niacin (vitamin B3) include mushrooms, cereals, eggs, meat, green vegetables, nuts and beans. the topical application of a 4 percent niacinamide gel twice a day for two months According to a study published in the Journal of Sexual Medicine.