health benefits of terpenes woman smelling lavender in a field New studies demonstrate that terpenes have physical health benefits as well as mental. “ Each dose pen's unique terpene makeup plays a meaningful role in. All flowers, herbs, and plants get their unique scent from organic meaningfully to the entourage effects of cannabis-based medicinal extracts. This is why cannabis varieties with similar cannabinoid profiles can have completely different effects – all thanks to the strain's unique terpene.
Benefits Terpenes Have Unique Health
These different compounds can provide varying medical benefits used to manage pain, alleviate stress, and treat inflammation and muscle spasms. Leafly has an infographic detailing the most common of these compounds and their corresponding aromas, effects, boiling points, medical benefits, and more.
For other, not-so-common terpenes, WeedMaps developed a health benefit chart to help in identifying more potential applications.
As the medical marijuana markets continue to grow, the demand for lab-tested products grows alongside it. Cannabis testing is the scientific process of measuring different chemicals and compounds in the product. Testing can measure beneficial components like cannabinoids and terpenes, or even undesirable contaminants such as pesticides and mold. Research now shows that strains have unique compound profiles built by a specific composition of cannabinoids and terpenes. Almost everything that is known about cannabis compounds is a result of studying their properties in isolation.
Given that the forest atmosphere is beneficial to human health and that terpenes are the main components of forest aerosols, we reviewed the effects of various terpenes from Korean forests on human health, especially on immunity, cancer, and neuronal health.
Studies in recent decades have demonstrated that terpenes exert anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting various proinflammatory pathways in ear edema, bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, skin inflammation, and osteoarthritis 19 — Another naturally occurring monoterpene d-limonene was reported to reduce allergic lung inflammation in mice probably via its antioxidant properties It also reduced carrageenan-induced inflammation by reducing cell migration, cytokine production, and protein extravasation Monoterpene p-cymene treatment reduced elastase-induced lung emphysema and inflammation in mice.
In another lung injury model, linalool attenuated lung histopathologic changes in LPS-induced mice. Frankincense oil extract, which contains linalool, exhibited anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in a xylene-induced ear edema model and a formalin-inflamed hind paw model by inhibiting COX-2 Another terpinene-containing essential oil from Citrus unshiu flower or fingered citron C.
Borneol, a bicyclic monoterpene present in Artemisia , Blumea , and Kaempferia , has been used in traditional medicine. Borneol alleviated acute lung inflammation by reducing inflammatory infiltration, histopathological changes, and cytokine production in LPS-stimulated mice.
Borneol inhibited migration of leukocytes into the peritoneal cavity in carrageenan-stimulated mice, suggesting its anti-inflammatory function In addition, borneol inhibited TRPA1, a cation channel that is involved in inflammation and noxious-pain sensing, suggesting that its use as an anti-inflammatory agent for neuropathic-pain and trigeminal neuralgia Chronic treatment with BCP attenuated alcohol-induced liver injury and inflammation by reducing the proinflammatory phenotypic switch of hepatic macrophages and neutrophil infiltration.
The beneficial effects of BCP on liver injury are mediated by cannabinoid 2 CB2 receptor activation Prolonged administration of BCP reduced proinflammatory cytokines in pancreatic tissue of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats Besides the aforementioned terpenes, anti-inflammatory effects have been reported with sabinene itself or sabinene-containing oil 48 , 49 , bornyl acetate 50 and myrcene Tumorigenesis is a multifaceted process, the progression of which is associated with several hallmarks, including uncontrolled cell growth, dysregulation of apoptosis, activation of invasion, induction of angiogenesis, and metastasis.
Terpenes have been shown to exert anti-tumorigenic effects against such processes in a number of in vivo and in vitro systems, thus suggesting their potential uses as chemotherapeutic agents for treating tumors. A number of monoterpenes have been reported to exert chemopreventive effects against tumors Of these, the anti-tumorigenic activity of d-limonene is well-established. Numerous studies have demonstrated the protective effects of d-limonene against chemical-induced tumors in various tissue types such as breast, intestine, pancreas, liver, and colon 52 — Anti-tumor effects of pinenes are well established on tumor lymphocytes as well as tumor cell lines However, Kusuhara et al.
Perillyl alcohol is a naturally occurring monoterpene, and a metabolite of limonene. Despite preclinical evidence of anticancer activity, perillyl alcohol appeared to have no clinical antitumor activity upon oral administration to patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma However, currently, it is under preclinical development as a potential clinical treatment for patients with brain tumor Perillic acid is a major metabolite of perillyl alcohol.
Upon examining the effects of perillic acid on lung metastasis induced by melanoma cells in mice, it was observed that administration of perillic acid remarkably reduced the metastatic tumor nodule formation by exerting an inhibitory effect on cell growth by G1 arrest 70 , Recently, Li et al. Myrcene, the acyclic monoterpene, also exhibits significant antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects in various tumor cell lines such as MCF-7 breast carcinoma , HeLa human cervical carcinoma , A human lung carcinoma , HT human colon adenocarcinoma , P leukemia , and Vero monkey kidney as well as mouse macrophages 74 , Essential oil from Vepris macrophylla demonstrated a strong cytotoxic effect, suggesting that the effect may be attributed to the presence of specific components, among which is myrcene Terpenes with more complex structures than monoterpenes, including sesquiterpenoids derived from sesquiterpenes by biochemical modifications, have demonstrated anticancer ability as well.
The anticancer effect of various sesquiterpenoids is mediated via inhibition of inflammatory responses, prevention of metastasis, and induction of apoptosis As described above, numerous in vitro and in vivo experimental results have demonstrated that the toxicity of terpene affects mainly cancer cells without harming healthy ones, confirming their efficiency in chemotherapeutic treatment of cancer.
Thus, it is noteworthy that the use of terpene and its derivatives can be considered to potentiate the action of existing conventional therapies 81 , Numerous studies have shown that essential oils derived from various plants have neuroprotective effects against neurodegenerative conditions in vivo and in vitro 83 — Therefore, as a main component of plant essential oils, terpenes may be beneficial to human neuronal health.
However, only few studies have focused on the beneficial effects of terpene components of plant essential oils on neuronal health.
So far, several terpenes, produced by a variety of plants, have been associated with neuronal health. Among those, borneol is a bicyclic monoterpene present in several medicinal plants 91 — In addition, treatment with isoborneol, a monoterpenoid alcohol, significantly reduced 6-hydroxydopamine-induced ROS generation and cell death in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, suggesting that isoborneol may be a potential therapeutic agent for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases associated with oxidative stress Salvianic borneol ester, a new compound synthesized from salvianic acid A and borneol, also exerts anti-amyloid and neuroprotective effects in both SH-SY5Y cells and motor neuron hybridoma VSC 4.
BCP also has neuroprotective functions. It has been reported that BCP has antioxidant effects , and functions as a regulator of several neuronal receptors and shows various pharmacological activities including neuroprotection As described above, BCP administration also exerts neuroprotective effects in rotenone-challenged rat model of PD by reducing neuroinflammation They protected PC12 cells against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis through ROS scavenging and induction of nuclear Nrf2 factor followed by enhanced expression of antioxidant enzymes including catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and HO-1 Similarly, p-cymene has cholinergic effects through regulation of expression of several genes in Caenorhabditis elegans Given that terpenes are major components of essential oils of various medicinal plants with neuroprotective functions, studies to find the beneficial roles of terpenes in neurodegenerative diseases will provide a promising way to develop therapeutics.
Essential oils obtained from plants have been used in diverse traditional medicines because of their broad beneficial effects on human health To date, many terpenes from essential oils as well as forest bathing have been reported to exhibit strong biological activities.
This review categorized the terpenes that have presented important results in cell and animal systems according to their anti-inflammatory, anti-tumorigenic, or neuroprotective activities Table 1.
Although data elucidating the possible action mechanisms of these compounds are increasing, numerous studies still present only preliminary screening results. Thus, to investigate the future chemotherapeutic uses of terpenes, it is necessary to explore further the detailed action mechanisms including signaling pathways that are associated with their biological functions.
In addition, understanding of the relationship between the diverse chemical structures of terpenes and the in vivo physiological roles of these compounds may provide critical insights for the future development of therapeutics with enhanced selectivity and specificity.
So far, many studies have extensively reported the pharmaceutical activities of monoterpenes among the terpenes. However, in recent years, small subgroups of other terpenes and terpenoids that exhibit diverse biological activities have been isolated or synthesized, providing a source of novel chemotherapeutic molecules. The use of various terpenes in clinical trials is currently limited due to insufficient data from human studies.
However, their use as potent chemotherapeutic compounds alone, as well as in combination with previously proven chemotherapeutic drugs, to increase effectiveness and decrease doses is expected to increase as data on their safety and efficacy in in vivo and in vitro systems are accumulated.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Toxicol Res v. Published online Apr View the discussion thread. Get the latest updates on cannabis legalization, politics and technology, as well as developments in medical and recreational marijuana news.
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Your source for global cannabis industry news! Here are ten of the most common terpenes found in cannabis and how they can be used to effectively treat a variety of symptoms: Myrcene Myrcene is the most common terpene found in cannabis and is known for its sedative effects. Limonene Limonene is commonly found in citrus, giving them their distinct scent.
Terpinolene Terpinolene is known for its woody or smokey aroma, and for being slightly sedative.
Terpenes and Their Effects Explained (Complete Guide)
Beyond THC And CBD: The Health Benefits Of Terpenes Each strain of cannabis has its own unique blend of terpenes, called the terpene profile. Along with cannabinoid profile — the amounts of THC, CBD and other. Common marijuana terpenes and health benefits of each explained. about terpenes is because some have significant medicinal value. As far as terpenes go, this one seems unique to Jack Herer and other Jack varieties. That being said, we can say for certain that all strains have a unique the infographic again to find which terpene will benefit you the most.