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Exploratory activity 2.4.4



  • Exploratory activity 2.4.4
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  • 6 days ago CO-APPLICANTS. Only a single Exploratory Pre-Seed Grant is permitted for activities Research activities, including bench fee1. CO-APPLICANTS. Only a single Exploratory Pre-Seed Grant is permitted for activities related to commercialization related activities. Table |CR Effects on Rat Behavior FREQ | BDC |ON | RATIO &|Lyskov et al () aggressiveness Mg” Enhanced exploratory activity in rats.

    Exploratory activity 2.4.4

    The two arms of each type were opposite to each other and extended from a. The floor and sidewalls of the maze were of gray opaque plexiglas material. Five m inutes before expos ure to the plus - maze, the. The mouse was placed at the. The following parameters of behavior were re c-. Indices 1 an d 4 were related to. The plus - maze was placed in a dimly lit room and thoroughly cleaned be tween sessions. Open - Field Test. Mice were placed carefully in the center of the.

    Between t he session s, the open fie ld was thoroughly washed wit h water and dried with napki ns. In the Porsolt test [25] e ach male was placed in a glass beaker The total time of ful l immobility without any mov ements,. Latency of fi rst demonstration of full immobility during 5 sec. Between the sessions, the water was changed in the glass beaker. A post hoc pair wise comparis on of the groups was made using the Bonfe rroni or LSD tests.

    For comparison of t he behaviors Win3 vs. Los3 ; Win10 vs. Los10 ; and Win21 vs. Los21 in the partition test,. Los 21 in the Porsolt test , the t - test was used.

    The percentage of animal s demonstrating ag-. Spearman correlational analysis was performed within every group of the winners in the agonistic interactions.

    The behavioral structur e was estimated in the 2nd, 10th and 21th tes ts as the percentage of. On day t wo,. Thr ee days late r, the stat us of the winner an d the loser b e-. On the following days, throug hout the entire expe rimental period, none of the males stoppe d.

    Every day d uring the agonistic i nteractions tests the winners demonstrat ed strong aggression — de -. Additionally, the Fisher LSD test. Win10 and Win21 for the tot al time of. There were no differences in the latency of first attack between all groups of comparison because of.

    In Win21, correlational analysis showed that the total time of attacks correlated positively wi th the total time. A s Figure 1 shows, the prevailing b e-. Behavior of aggressive male mice with 3 Win3 , 10 Win10 , 21 Win21 days of agonistic interactions. Behavioral parameters Win3 Win10 Win Latency of first attack, sec. N animals 14 14 Structure of the behavior of Win3, Win10, and Win21 after the third, tenth and twentieth first days respectively.

    D uring most of the test time,. Total time of digging behavior progressively increased from test to test of agonistic interaction s. A loser behavior becam e obvious after 3 day s of agonistic interact ions. Losers — described as those groups of. In the first confrontations , the losers demonst rated mostly act ive defense and reari ng in. After a prolonged experience of defeats, the main behaviors were immobility.

    There were no differences between behaviors of Los10 and Los Los10 and L os21 for. Addi tionally, the Fisher LS D test r e-. As Figure 2 shows, the prevaili ng beh avior during. Behavior of the losers with 3 Los3 , 10 Los10 , 21 Los21 days of agonistic interactions.

    Behavioral parameters Los3 Los10 Los Active defense, N Structure of the behavior of Los3, Los10, and Los21 after the third , tenth and twentieth first days respectively. In the first confrontations, the. Win10, and Win21 on all pa rameters of partition be havior, i.

    Among t he losers, one - way. The post hoc Bonferroni test revealed differences Figure 3 in the following com parisons: Add itionally, the Fisher LSD test. In Win10 but not in Win3 and Win21 , the correlational a nalysi s showed that the number of attacks corr e-. Behavioral observations showed that mice from all groups control s, Win21, Los21 were cal m during the test.

    In the first minutes of the test, the losers spent much time in the center, quickly exiting and entering the closed. L ater, the mice began t o explore the open ar ms. Soon after the b e-. Al l groups reached the end of. The post hoc Bonfer roni. Total time spent near the partition as reaction to the partner in the neighboring compar tment of the common cage.

    Total time of rearing behavior. Results we re indicated as follows: Behavior of the controls, Win21 and Los21 in the elevated plus- maze test. Behavioral parameters Control Win21 Los Total entries, N Head- dips, N Additionally, the LSD test revealed differences between the controls and Los21 in open - arm entries. T he post hoc. Bonferroni test rev ealed significant dif ferences Figure 4 in the following comparisons: Thus, the number of crossed squares and number of rearings were increased and the number.

    Be havioral o b-. No differences in the la-. On the followi ng days, there were n o inversions of. Eve ry day, the winners demonstrated aggres sion during all exp erimental. The scores e stimating the aggre ssiveness in male m ice — th e total time and number of attacks and the. On the one hand, the decrease i n aggressiveness sco res could be a conseque nc e of.

    Thereafter, the behavior of the losers. As a result, the acti ve forms of offensi ve aggression were pa rtly replaced by ag gressive grooming a nd indirect. How ever, as our results show d uring agonistic int eractions, the.

    Behavior of Los21 after 21 days of agonistic interactions in the Porso lt t est. Immobility time indicating a d epre s-. Most of time during the test they d emo n-. On the other hand, an increased num ber of jumps and rot ations indicated the deve l-. The significant ne gative correlation f ound between the tot al time of attacks and the sum of. Similarly with Win21, Win10 demonstrated strong.

    Overactive behaviors such as abnormal explo ratory behavior and locom otor. The num ber of crossed. Sim ilar to earlier data on m ice of other strain s. This means that the partition test could serve as a tool for measuring the expression of aggression moti vation. Thus, in the winners, repeated experiences of aggression led to the. Most of these changes ma nifest ed themselves. The expressed behavioral changes were observed in the losers with a repeated experience of social defeats. In t he plus - maze immediately after the start of the test, the losers spent.

    Later the mice began to explore the ope n arms. Pronounced a nxi ety was found in the losers as estimated. The controls explored both the c losed and o pen. The total tim e spent near the parti tion as a reaction t o a partner in the neighboring compart ment in a. Thus, bo th tests indicate d an increased anxiety - like state in the d e-.

    Surprisingly, the CD - 1 losers displayed loco motor hyperactivity i. A decr ease in self - gro oming behavior in. The Porsolt tes t revealed an increased time o f i m-. As our team worked very few hours during this evaluation period, this document is considerably briefer than our previous evaluation. This evaluation does not include our plans for as these are still being developed.

    We hope to release these in a separate post in the coming weeks. We failed to meet our fourth goal, i. This will be a high priority for the project in T1, As a result, we decided not to begin new projects but instead to wrap up ongoing projects.

    This means our output for this evaluation period is significantly lower than in T1. We focus on adding as much value as possible, measured along our impact criteria. These are qualitative and rely largely on our impressions and expectations. To support our impact metrics, we also measure our work according to a combination of quantitative and qualitative indicators. These measure our progress and the quality of our work which we believe are useful proxies in understanding value added.

    Our indicators are supporting rather than primary metrics, and the importance of the information they convey is considered accordingly. If we discovered activities that are net-negative or positive for reducing WAS, we could shift very quickly into advocacy. When I developed this project, I had planned for it to be a much more thorough investigation of the potential uses of HANPP to understand the large-scale effects of human activities on wild animal welfare.

    I decided to publish this paper as an introduction to HANPP, explain its relevance to WAS, and then point out further directions of research that I expect will be useful. C ont rol 4. LS r epr esen ts Lactuca sativa and D rep rese nts dia zep am. EPM is considered one of the most widely validated tests. I t is well kno wn that the anxio lyti c agen ts incr eas e the moto r. A nima ls trea ted with diazep am show ed.

    O pen -fi eld tes t sho ws. T hough this parame ter does not reflect changes. T he two majo r be hav ior al vari ab les eva lua ted in th e op en f iel d.

    N ovel object test. T he marble burying test is a useful model of. T his behaviour is probably a type of defensive. R at exposure test utilizes the. T he defe nsi ve be hav ior s mea sur ed by th is te st are sen sit ive to. T he inhibition of feeding behaviou r has been. T reat ment with a variet y of drugs used to mana ge anxiety in. R e por ts sta te t hat , t he eth ano l ex tra ct of Lactuca sativa is ric h. I n this work , the anxi oly tic proper tie s of extra cts of Lactuca.

    T he anx iol yti c prop ert y was highe r in the gro up. R at exposure test has proven useful to determine strain. N umber of entries,. I n this test the feeding of L. E ffe ct of h ydr o-al coh ol extr act Lactuca sativa ext rac ts o n t he rat exp osur e t est for 15 an d 30 da ys t rea tmen t. N o of entries to rat. L atency for 1 ent ry. T ime in rat zone. C ont rol 8. LS re pres ent Lactuca sativa an d D re pres ent s di aze pam. E ffe ct of h ydr o-al coh ol extr act Lactuca sativa ext rac ts o n t he H ypo neo pha gia sw eet cor n for 15 and 30 days tr eat ment.

    N o of entr ies to food. T ime in food zone. C ont rol 1. T he p lan t ext ract s, d iaze pam or co ntr ol, w ere i nje cted 60 m in pr ior to te st. G enerally there was a significant increase in the locomotor.

    T his dose demo nstr ated a near to equiv alen t anxiol ytic. I n view of these. A uthors are grateful to D r. B awa, D irector and D r. F arhath K hanum, H ead, B iochemistry and N utrition. A nalgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Lactuca sativa seed. J of Ethnopharmacology 2 ; B itter sesquiterpene lactones from chicory roots.

    Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 4 ; A ntioxi dant and anti proli fera tive acti vitie s. J of agriculture and food chemistry 2 ; L actuca virosa and. Phytotherapie 2 ; P rote cti ve effe cts of ethan oli c. Journal of herbal medicine and toxicology 7 ; 1 2: A nxi olyt ic natur al and synt heti c flavo noid ligands of the central. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 19 97 ; F lav onoi ds and the cent ral nervous system: J Pharm Pharmacol 1 ; A nimals behaviour al models for testing anti-anx iety.

    E xpe rime nta l metho ds for eval uat ion of. Ind J ExpBiol 19 97 ; Behav Brain Res 20 04 ; N agamatsu S , W ada K. D ecreased marble burying behavior in. Brain Res 2 ;. T he rat expo sur e te st: Physiol Behav 4 ; H ypo neop hag ia: A measu re of anxi ety in the mouse ,. Journal of Visualised Experiments 1 ; A nxi olyt ic eff ect of wogon in, a benzod iaze pin e. Pharmacol 1 ; A nxiolytic like effects of o methyl - N. MEZ L au race ae in m ice. Biol Pharm Bull ; I ndividu al response.

    Behavioural Brain Research 2 ; 1: L eone V G. I nvesti gative burying by. Behav Brain Res 8 ; 94 2: M ats uda , T osh ioa. Pharmacol ; 17 7: Pharmacology 20 04 ; 1 - 3: B ur yin g as a de fens ive res pons e in rat s. R ecent advances in animal models of chronic.

    T he novelty-ind uced hypophagia test. Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; V alidat ion of a simple, ethologi call y. S e squ iter pen e. Phytochemistry 1 ; E ffe ct o f met hyl jasm ona te.

    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry ; The authors attributed these effects to simple phenols and saponins compounds demonstrated in several plant extracts. The anxiolytic properties of the hydro-alcoholic extract of the Lactuca sativa leaves in mice were reported by Harsha and Anilakumar [21]. Lactuca sativa acts as an antioxidant in preventing either cancer[22]and D-galactose-induced oxidative stress[23]in mice.

    Recently, Michalska and Kisiel[17]reported the presence of the coumarins scopolin, isofraxoside and a-xylofuranosyluracil in the roots and aerial parts of the Lactuca capensis.

    We investigated the neuropharmacological effects of the methanolic extract from Lactuca capensis Thunb.

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    normal Exploratory Activity Developing in CD-1 Male Mice under .. Open- Field Test. The open-field test [1] was carried out in a 9 × 9. Hyperactivity and Abnormal Exploratory Activity Developing in CD-1 Male Mice under . Open-Field Test. The open-field test [1] was carried out in a 9 × 9 . 5 Underground Tests to be Performed in the Exploratory Shaft Facility SCP Section Lead SCP Activity Geologic mapping of the exploratory shaft and drifts Radial borehole tests in the exploratory shaft facility USGS 26 .

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    normal Exploratory Activity Developing in CD-1 Male Mice under .. Open- Field Test. The open-field test [1] was carried out in a 9 × 9.


    Hyperactivity and Abnormal Exploratory Activity Developing in CD-1 Male Mice under . Open-Field Test. The open-field test [1] was carried out in a 9 × 9 .


    5 Underground Tests to be Performed in the Exploratory Shaft Facility SCP Section Lead SCP Activity Geologic mapping of the exploratory shaft and drifts Radial borehole tests in the exploratory shaft facility USGS 26 .


    E Elevated plus maze test PURPOSE AND RATIONALE Out of many EVALUATION Motor activity and open arm exploratory time are registered.


    One day before surgery, locomotor activity and exploratory behavior were analyzed using Novel cage test. To investigate exploratory behavior in a novel.


    importance of exploratory activity from the perspective of dynamical systems in . Degrees of freedom and motor activity. Self-exploratory activity.

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