Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. Shanza21 how to download? Varaprasad Padala , student at vaageswari institute of pharmaceutical sciences. Prathibha Kesha , Student at Gland institute of pharmaceutical sciences. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Steroid hormones in mammals are biosynthesized from cholesterol, which in turn is made in vivo from acetyl-coenzyme A acetyl-CoA via the mevalonate pathway.
These drugs are primarily in: Cholesterol synthesis occurs in smooth ER and enzymatic conversion occur in mitochondria. Steroid hormone receptors Steroid hormones are lipid soluble molecules Hydrophobic that bind to hormone receptors in the cytoplasm of the target cell. Greatest progress in steroid research in recent years has been in the area of steroid receptors, Considering the many diverse actions at even a single class of steroid hormones.
The receptor-hormone complex binds to the regulatory region of the gene and changes the expression of that gene. A general scheme for steroid hormone receptor interactions: Steroid crosses cell membrane into cytoplasm 2. Steroid binds cytosolic receptor which is kept inactive by heat-shock proteins HSPs 3. Binding alters receptor confirmation, releasing HSPs 4.
Active receptors bind directly to DNA and initiate transcription 5. Which are encoded by different genes. Estrogens exert their effects by interaction with receptors that are members of the super family of nuclear receptors. After entering the cell by passive diffusion through the plasma membrane, the hormone binds to an ER in the nucleus In the nucleus, the ER is present as an inactive monomer bound to heat-shock proteins, and upon binding estrogen, a change in ER confirmation dissociates the heat-shock proteins and causes receptor dimerization, which increases the affinity and the rate of receptor binding to DNA 5 sitaram 6.
Progesterone receptor PR The PR can also be found in two forms, but these are derived from a single gene. Only one gene and one protein are known for each receptor. Steroid hormones are classified in to two types. Glucocorticoids effects on carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism. Androgens effects on muscle development and maturity and coordination. It also been isolated from adrenal cortex and ovaries. There are 4 naturally occurring androgens in man i. Epiandrosterone or androstenedione iv.
Progestins are precursors to all androgens. Androgens Male sex hormones ii. Oestrogens Female or Follicular hormones iii. Gestogens Corpus luteum hormones Testosterone exerts its physiological activity after its conversion to Dihydrotestosterone. A steroidal skeleton is minimum structural requirement to have androgenic activity.
Reduction of the A ring e. Esterification of testosterone at C with a number of acids have long duration of action when used parenterally. Heterocyclic rings are also incorporated yield good anabolic agents. Stanozolol 19 sitaram The 3-deoxy analogs have been found to be potent androgen.
Several heterocyclic rings were then fused to ring A. Bone Spermatogenesis Behavior Estrogens and progestin's are hormones that produce many physiological actions.
Female sex hormones In women: Developmental effects estrogens are largely responsible for pubertal changes in girls and secondary sexual characteristics. Neuroendocrine actions involved in: Control of ovulation and the preparation of the reproductive tract for fertilization and implantation. Progesterone Progesterone is secreted mainly by the corpus luteum of the ovary. Pregnenolone is a prohormone. Progesterone is important in maintaining pregnancy.
Hormonal Contraceptives Ethinyl estradiol a synthetic estrogen and mestranol are the estrogens most frequently used. Levonorgestrel is the most common progestin used worldwide. This type is the most frequently used in the United States, which contain both an estrogen and a progestin.
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