GlucocorticoidCorticosteroids are steroids anti inflammatory class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebratesas well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones. Two main classes of corticosteroids, glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids steroids anti inflammatory, are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including stress responseimmune responseand regulation of inflammationcarbohydrate metabolismprotein catabolismblood electrolyte levels, and behavior. Note that aldosterone and cortisone share the same chemical formula but the structures are different. Cutting decanters main corticosteroids produced by the adrenal cortex are cortisol inflammmatory aldosterone. Synthetic pharmaceutical drugs with corticosteroid-like effects are used in a variety of conditions, steroids anti inflammatory from brain tumors to skin diseases.
Oral Steroids | Types and Side Effects | Patient
Corticosteroids are steroid hormones classified as glucocorticoids anti-inflammatory , which suppress inflammation and immunity and assist in the breakdown of fats , carbohydrates, and proteins.
They may also be classified as mineralocorticoids salt retaining that regulate the balance of salt and water in the body. Corticosteroids are used to treat conditions such as arthritis , colitis , asthma , bronchitis , allergic reactions, and skin rashes.
NSAIDs nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used to treat pain and reduce inflammation from a variety of causes, such as headaches , injuries, arthritis, menstrual cramps , and muscle aches. NSAIDs are also used as fever reducers. COX-1 protects the stomach lining from digestive acids, and helps maintain kidney function.
COX-2 is produced when joints are injured or inflamed. Blocking both forms of this enzyme reduces inflammation, pain, and fever, but can also cause gastrointestinal side effects. Corticosteroids have many side effects that can be mild or serious. These side effects are more apparent when corticosteroids are used at higher doses or for extended periods of time. This section lists only some of these side effects of corticosteroids. The prolonged use of corticosteroids can cause obesity , growth retardation in children, and even lead to convulsions and psychiatric disturbances.
Reported psychiatric disturbances include depression , euphoria , insomnia , mood swings , and personality changes. Psychotic behaviors also have been reported. Corticosteroids, since they suppress the immune system, can lead to an increase in the rate of infections and reduce the effectiveness of vaccines and antibiotics. The long term use of corticosteroids may cause osteoporosis which can result in bone fractures.
Shrinking atrophy of the adrenal glands can be caused by the long term use of corticosteroids resulting in the body's inability to produce cortisol, the body's natural corticosteroid , when the systemic corticosteroids are discontinued. Another condition which can result from the long term use of corticosteroids is adrenal necrosis of the hip joints, a very painful and serious condition that may require surgery.
Any symptoms of hip or knee pain in people taking corticosteroids require prompt medical attention. Corticosteroids should not be stopped suddenly after prolonged use as this can result in adrenal crisis because of the body's inability to secrete enough cortisol to make up for the withdrawal.
Nausea , vomiting , and shock are the reported side effects of adrenal crisis. NSAIDs are associated with several side effects. Common side effects are. NSAIDs can cause fluid retention which can lead to edema, which is most commonly manifested by swelling of the ankles. Use of aspirin in children and teenagers with chickenpox or influenza has been associated with the development of Reye's syndrome, a serious and sometimes fatal liver disease.
Therefore, aspirin and non-aspirin salicylates for example, salsalate [ Amigesic ] should not be used in children and teenagers with suspected or confirmed chickenpox or influenza. NSAIDs increase the risk of potentially fatal, stomach and intestinal adverse reactions for example, bleeding, ulcers, and perforation of the stomach or intestines. These events can occur at any time during treatment and without warning symptoms. Elderly patients are at greater risk for these adverse events.
NSAIDs except low dose aspirin may increase the risk of potentially fatal heart attacks , stroke , and related conditions. This risk may increase with duration of use and in patients who have underlying risk factors for heart and blood vessel disease.
Certain drugs such as troleandomycin TAO , erythromycin Ery-Tab , EryPed , and clarithromycin Biaxin and ketoconazole Nizoral can reduce the ability of the liver to metabolize breakdown corticosteroids and this may lead to an increase in the levels and side effects of corticosteroids in the body.
On the other hand, phenobarbital, ephedrine , phenytoin Dilantin , and rifampin Rifadin , Rimactane may reduce the blood levels of corticosteroids by increasing the breakdown of corticosteroids by the liver. This may necessitate an increase of corticosteroid dose when they are used in combination with these drugs. Estrogens have been shown to increase the effects of corticosteroids possibly by decreasing their breakdown by the liver.
Corticosteroid effects on warfarin Coumadin can vary; therefore when taking warfarin Coumadin along with corticosteroids, there may be increased need for monitoring coagulation levels more closely. Low blood potassium hypokalemia and a higher chance of heart failure can result from combining corticosteroids with drugs that reduce potassium in the blood for example, diuretics, amphotericin B.
Anticholinesterase drugs for example, physostigmine may cause severe weakness in some patients with myasthenia gravis when prescribed with corticosteroids. Corticosteroids can increase blood glucose, so close monitoring of blood sugar and higher doses of diabetes medications may be needed. Cholestyramine Questran , Questran Light can decrease the absorption of oral corticosteroids from the stomach and this could reduce the blood levels of corticosteroids.
NSAIDs reduce blood flow to the kidneys and therefore reduce the action of diuretics "water pills" and decrease the elimination of lithium Eskalith, Lithobid and methotrexate Rheumatrex , Trexall. As a result, the blood levels of these drugs may increase as may their side effects.
NSAIDs also decrease the ability of the blood to clot and therefore increase bleeding. When used with other drugs that also increase bleeding for example, warfarin [Coumadin] , there is an increased likelihood of serious bleeding or complications of bleeding. Therefore, individuals who are taking drugs that reduce the ability of blood to clot should avoid prolonged use of NSAIDs. NSAIDs also may increase blood pressure in patients with hypertension high blood pressure and therefore antagonize the action of drugs that are used to treat hypertension.
NSAIDs increase the negative effect of cyclosporine on kidney function. People who have more than three alcoholic beverages per day may be at increased risk of developing stomach ulcers when taking NSAIDs. The following is a list of the systemic oral and injectable corticosteroids that are available in the United States:. Corticosteroids are synthetic hormones, and NSAIDs nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are non-narcotic pain relievers.
Both medications reduce inflammation. NSAIDs are also used to treat pain and reduce fever. Osteoarthritis OA is a degenerative joint disease affecting both cartilage and bone.
Joints most often affected by How is rheumatoid arthritis different from other forms of arthritis, such as osteoarthritis and gout? Is pain all in the brain? Take the Pain Quiz to learn everything you've ever wanted to know about the unpleasant sensation we What is Ankylosing spondylitis AS?
Ankylosing spondylitis is arthritis of the spine. It causes symptoms like stiffness and Colds and fevers are some of the most common ailments in children. Learn common cold symptoms, treatment options, over the Colitis refers to inflammation of the inner lining of the colon. Symptoms of the inflammation of the colon lining include Headaches can be divided into two categories: Migraine headaches, tension headaches, Although a fever technically is any body temperature above the normal of Arthritis is inflammation of one or more joints.
When joints are inflamed they can develop stiffness, warmth, swelling, redness Bronchitis is inflammation of the airways in the lung. Acute bronchitis is is short in duration 10 to 20 days in comparison An allergy refers to a misguided reaction by our immune system in response to bodily contact with certain foreign substances.
Menstrual cramps pain in the belly and pelvic area are experienced by women as a result of menses. Menstrual cramps are not the Neuropathic pain is a chronic condition that leads to ongoing pain symptoms. Patients can be predisposed to developing Asthma is a condition in which hyperreactive airways constrict and result in symptoms like wheezing, coughing, and shortness of Pain management and treatment can be simple or complex, according to its cause.
There are two basic types of pain, nociceptive Chronic pain is pain an unpleasant sense of discomfort that persists or progresses over a long period of time. Menstrual cramps and premenstrual syndrome PMS symptoms include abdominal cramping, bloating, a feeling of fullness, abdominal You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Regular exercise boosts fitness and helps reverse joint stiffness for people with rheumatoid arthritis RA.
WebMD demonstrates helpful exercises to get you started. Acute bronchitis is is short in duration 10 to 20 days in comparison with chronic bronchitis, which lasts for months to years. Causes of acute bronchitis include viruses and bacteria, which means it can be contagious.
Acute bronchitis caused by environmental factors such as pollution or cigarette smoke is not contagious. Common symptoms for acute bronchitis include nasal congestion, cough, headache, sore throat, muscle aches, and fatigue. Acute bronchitis in children also my include runny nose, fever, and chest pain.
Treatment for acute bronchitis are OTC pain relievers, cough suppressants although not recommended in children , and rest. Infrequently antibiotics may be prescribed to treat acute bronchitis. Quick Guide Chronic Pain Syndrome: Treatment and Management for CPS. Summary Corticosteroids are synthetic hormones, and NSAIDs nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are non-narcotic pain relievers. Treatment, Symptoms, Diagnosis Osteoarthritis OA is a degenerative joint disease affecting both cartilage and bone.
What is Rheumatoid Arthritis? Cold, Fever and Flu Treatment in Children: Medications and Home Remedies Colds and fevers are some of the most common ailments in children.
Colitis Symptoms, Types, and Treatments Colitis refers to inflammation of the inner lining of the colon.