Journal of Steroids & Hormonal ScienceAnabolic steroids are synthetic derivatives of testosterone modified to enhance the anabolic rather than the androgenic actions of the hormone. The anabolic effects are considered journal articles on anabolic steroids be those promoting protein synthesis, muscle growth and crythopoiesis. There are numerous side-effects to anabolic steroids, including hypertension and atherosclerosis, blood clotting, anabklic, hepatic carcinoma, tendon damage, psychiatric and behavioural effects and, in males, reduced fertility and gynaccomastia. Anabolic steroids were added to the International Olympic Committee's list journal articles on anabolic steroids banned substances in In long term side effects of prednisone steroids main, experimental investigations have been poorly designed scientifically, clinically and statistically. The percentage of positive test results from IOC accredited laboratories has remained consistently low. However, athletes take their steroids during training and out-of-competition testing is not conducted in all countries, although international co-operation is now under consideration.
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Less than one percent 0. Results were compared to a baseline study completed before legislation lead to the scheduling of anabolic steroids. These results suggest that anabolic steroids remain a problem among pre-adolescents. Educational programs should be instituted during junior high school to increase the knowledge of anabolic steroids in this group. Information should come from qualified individuals including coaches, teachers, trainers, and especially parents.
Anabolic steroid usage has been recognized as a serious health and ethical problem in athletes for several decades. Numerous examples of steroid usage rules violations have been highly publicized and have lead to the suspension and stripping of medals from international athletes, as well as many American professional athletes.
Elite athletes, however, are not the only population of individuals that use steroids. Recreational athletes also use steroids to enhance performance and to improve personal appearance. Furthermore, evidence indicates that steroid usage often starts during high school. Several investigators have examined the prevalence of anabolic steroid usage among American adolescent students, ages years old. To date, published reports show male prevalence ranging from 1. Sixty-five percent were involved in high school athletics.
Furthermore, anabolic steroid use has been associated with illicit drug use and high-risk behaviors. Yesalis et al did examine a population of adolescents 12 years old and older, and reported that males had higher levels of anabolic steroid use during their lifetime than females 0. In a report sponsored by the National Youth Sports Research and Development Center in , a baseline was established for anabolic steroid knowledge, attitudes, and usage for a population of year-old youth sports participants.
This study also identified a population at risk. In , a second study was undertaken to examine the changes in attitudes and knowledge of anabolic steroids over time with the increased publicity and educational sources available to youth sports participants. The purpose of this paper is to report on the results of that study and compare responses to those obtained in This study is unique, as it is the first to present results in athletes this young using a national database.
The twenty-question survey included 15 questions used to determine the age, sex, race, sport, prevalence of anabolic steroid use, knowledge of side effects, attitudes towards steroids, and where to obtain anabolic steroids. Five additional questions focused on the number of years that the athletes were involved in sports, information sources about steroids, and perceptions of how steroids work.
Two research assistants in each of 34 states distributed questionnaires. The states were broken down into four geographical regions, and the results were examined nationally as well as regionally, Table 1. Sixty questionnaires were distributed to each state in two separate groups of 30 each. Figure 1 displays the response rates according to geographical region. Where appropriate, Chi-squared tests were used to determine statistical significance. The characteristics of the 1, youth sports participants who completed the survey are shown in Table 2.
Table 3 describes the ethnicity of the students in the survey. Sport that youth sport participants currently involved in at time of survey. The characteristics of the survey participants, including ethnic origin and sport participation did not vary significantly between the regions. Prevalence of Anabolic Steroid Use. The rate of usage was higher in males 0. Twelve percent of all athletes said that they personally know someone who was using or had used steroids.
Three percent of males also believed that they needed to take anabolic steroids to improve chances for athletic success. The youth sports participants were given ten choices regarding their primary source of information about anabolic steroids, Table 5. This study was undertaken to examine the knowledge and attitudes of 10 to 14 year-old youth sports participants toward anabolic steroids. Very little attention has been paid to the pre-adolescent population in comparison to the high school age and older populations.
This is the first study to examine this young of a population and thus has initiated questions about the knowledge, or lack thereof, and the educational processes directed towards this age group. This survey is also one of the first to look exclusively at a population of athletes before they enter high school.
The study was conducted in 34 states, and involved 1, youth sports participants. Prevalence of anabolic steroid usage was 0. Consistent with other studies, more males 0. This appears to show a tendency toward greater risk-taking behaviors in the males in this population.
The decrease in prevalence of anabolic steroid use among this age population may have several explanations. Since , subsequent to the first survey, anabolic steroids have been classified as a Schedule III drug in the United States. This has resulted in decreased legal availability of anabolic steroids to potential users. Increased educational resources are available to at least certain age groups and are now reaching larger numbers of children.
There is still pressure to take steroids and availability is still common. Unlike other studies where the sample population included athletes and non-athletes, this study involved only athletes. Prevalence of anabolic steroid use has historically been higher in athletes than non-athletes. Since athletes use steroids more often than non-athletes being exposed to anabolic steroids.
A study including both higher risk athletes and lower risk non-athletes individuals may show prevalence rates lower than described here.
The sources that would seem most appropriate: Parents, coaches, teachers, and health-care providers need to take a more active role in educating adolescents about the effects of anabolic steroids. Too often adolescents are left to compile information on anabolic steroids from inappropriate sources and so do not fully understand the effects associated with steroids.
According to published data DuRaunt et al, ; DuRaunt, Emons et al, ; Ashworth et al, adolescents who use anabolic steroids are more likely to exhibit other high-risk behaviors such as multiple illicit drug use, unprotected sex, and illegal behaviors. Educational programs must not include just the direct negative effects of anabolic steroids to an individual, but they must also provide information about behavioral modification strategies, risk avoidance and reduction of peer pressure.
Approximately one percent of 10 to 14 year-old youth sports participants are using or have used anabolic steroids. Insufficient knowledge and inappropriate attitudes regarding the benefits and risks of using anabolic steroids is also a major concern. Less than two-thirds of the athletes had the effects of anabolic steroids explained to them, and less than half of them have received their knowledge from an adult parent, coach, teacher, athletic trainer, etc.
Over a quarter of youth sports participants have received their knowledge of anabolic steroids from magazines or books. Educational programs have shown to be effective against other forms of drug use. New educational and intervention efforts against anabolic steroids likewise should be instituted. These programs should start before junior high and continue through high school. Informational sources about steroids should come from qualified individuals including teachers, coaches, and trainers.
Parents should also be involved and educated to help inform their children about anabolic steroids. Yesalis Estimated prevalence of anabolic steroid use among high school seniors. Journal of the American Medical Association, , Yesalis Anabolic-androgenic steroid use in the United States.
Med Sci Sports Exerc. Adolescent body image and attitudes to anabolic steroid use. Anabolic-steroid use, strength training, and multiple drug use among adolescents in the United States. Pediatrics, 9 6, Anabolic steroid use among adolescents in a rural state.
Anabolic steroid use by adolescents: Cl J Sports Med. High-risk behaviors among high school students in Massachusetts who use anabolic steroids. Anabolic steroid use in adolescent athletes. Ped Cl North Amer. Rate of anabolic-androgenic steroid use among students in junior high school.
Use of multiple drugs among adolescents who use anabolic steroids. Study Group — 10 to 14 year-old youth sports participants. Gregory Marshall and Devinder Jarial are graduate students at Indiana State University completing their Master of Science in Nursing degrees with a family nurse practitioner concentration.
Exercise-induced hematuria in healthy young adults is not usually associated with significant morbidity or mortality Moderate exercise-induced hematuria is seen habitually, both in athletes and in the general public However, hematuria can be a signal of more serious diseases In endurance athletes, the microscopic hematuria is often self-limiting and resolves within hours 1.
The abnormal presence of red blood cells in urine may indicate kidney inflammation, infection or trauma in the urinary tract, or neoplastic diseases in the urogenital tract 6. Diagnostics and interventions should be adapted to the individual based on the history of present illness, age, and past medical history. Future research on this topic could be adapted to evaluating and treating microscopic hematuria in multiple sports and activities.
He is also a graduate student at the United States Sports Academy. Adult fans support this in a variety of ways. But, the history of the game has a less-than-noble side. The steroid era in baseball has been widely considered as a blemish on the visage of baseball, leaving the people involved and the game itself open to disdain and disparagement. Until recently, the writers who elect people to the Baseball Hall of Fame have echoed these sentiments by holding to a very narrow view of that era, and the effects thereof can be likened to staring at their shoes.
But a certain shift is appearing regarding perceptions about the steroid era — a view given to greater forbearance, in the larger context of the history of baseball, and how best to preserve the integrity of the game. Over time, there has also been a greater societal demand for full disclosure.
This has created a wealth of information about the steroid era in relation to the history of the game of baseball, including chronicled accounts of what people did and what they said, and did not say, at the time.