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Dexamethasone - Wikipedia
Dexamethasone is a type of corticosteroid medication. The long-term use of dexamethasone may result in thrush , bone loss, cataracts , easy bruising, or muscle weakness.
Dexamethasone was first made in Dexamethasone is used to treat many inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis and bronchospasm. It is unclear whether dexamethasone in this condition is significantly better than other glucocorticoids. Dexamethasone is commonly given as a treatment for croup in children, as a single dose can reduce the swelling of the airway to improve breathing and reduce discomfort.
It is injected into the heel when treating plantar fasciitis , sometimes in conjunction with triamcinolone acetonide. It is useful to counteract allergic anaphylactic shock , if given in high doses. It is present in certain eye drops — particularly after eye surgery — and as a nasal spray trade name Dexacort , and certain ear drops Sofradex , when combined with an antibiotic and an antifungal.
Dexamethasone intravitreal steroid implants trade name Ozurdex have been approved by the FDA to treat ocular conditions such as diabetic macular edema , central retinal vein occlusion , and uveitis. Dexamethasone is used in transvenous screw-in cardiac pacing leads to minimize the inflammatory response of the myocardium.
The steroid is released into the myocardium as soon as the screw is extended and can play a significant role in minimizing the acute pacing threshold due to the reduction of inflammatory response.
The typical quantity present in a lead tip is less than 1. Dexamethasone may be administered before antibiotics in cases of bacterial meningitis. It acts to reduce the inflammatory response of the body to the bacteria killed by the antibiotics bacterial death releases proinflammatory mediators that can cause a response which is harmful , thus reducing hearing loss and neurological damage. People with cancer undergoing chemotherapy are often given dexamethasone to counteract certain side effects of their antitumor treatments.
Dexamethasone can increase the antiemetic effect of 5-HT 3 receptor antagonists , such as ondansetron. In brain tumors primary or metastatic , dexamethasone is used to counteract the development of edema , which could eventually compress other brain structures. It is also given in cord compression , where a tumor is compressing the spinal cord.
Dexamethasone is the treatment for the very rare disorder of glucocorticoid resistance. In adrenal insufficiency and Addison's disease , dexamethasone is prescribed when the patient does not respond well to prednisone or methylprednisolone. It can be used in congenital adrenal hyperplasia in older adolescents and adults to suppress ACTH production. It is typically given at night. Dexamethasone may be given to women at risk of delivering prematurely to promote maturation of the fetus' lungs.
This has been associated with low birth weight , although not with increased rates of neonatal death. Dexamethasone has also been used during pregnancy as an off-label prenatal treatment for the symptoms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia CAH in female babies. CAH causes a variety of physical abnormalities, notably ambiguous genitalia.
Early prenatal CAH treatment has been shown to reduce some CAH symptoms, but it does not treat the underlying congenital disorder. This use is controversial: A small clinical trial found long-term effects on verbal working memory among the small group of children treated prenatally, but the small number of test subjects means the study cannot be considered definitive.
It is commonly carried on mountain-climbing expeditions to help climbers deal with complications of altitude sickness.
Dexamethasone and ondansetron are more effective than ondansetron alone in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting. The exact incidence of the adverse effects of dexamethasone are not available, hence estimates have been made as to the incidence of the adverse effects below based on the adverse effects of related corticosteroids and on available documentation on dexamethasone.
Sudden withdrawal after long-term treatment with corticosteroids can lead to: Contraindications include,   but not limited to:. Known drug interactions include: As a glucocorticoid, dexamethasone is an agonist of the glucocorticoid receptor GR. A ring-opening reaction with hydrogen fluoride in tetrahydrofuran gives dexamethasone. Dexamethasone is not expensive. Dexamethasone is given in legal Bangladeshi brothels to prostitutes not yet of legal age, causing weight gain aimed at making them appear healthier and older to customers and police.
Dexamethasone is a banned substance by some sporting bodies. In November , the world's number one badminton player Lee Chong Wei was banned by the Badminton World Federation for testing positive for the drug, although he denied using any banned substances. Combined with marbofloxacin and clotrimazole , dexamethasone is available under the name Aurizon, CAS number , and used to treat difficult ear infections, especially in dogs.
It can also be combined with trichlormethiazide to treat horses with swelling of distal limbs and general bruising. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. C Risk not ruled out. S4 Prescription only CA: Papilloedema Adrenal suppression Growth stunting in children Cushing's syndrome Peptic ulcer Osteoporosis Myopathy Diabetes mellitus type 2 Hyperglycaemia Pancreatitis inflammation of the pancreas Sodium and water retention Mania Psychosis Glaucoma Cardiomyopathy Abdominal distension Corneal or scleral thinning Candidiasis Skin atrophy Bruising Telangiectasia Striae Leukocytosis Thromboembolism Psychological dependence Vertebral collapse Oesophageal ulcer Seizures Hypertriglyceridaemia Intracranial hypertension long-term treatment Facial plethora Hypokalaemia Hypocalcaemia Muscular atrophy Nitrogen depletion due to protein catabolism Allergic reactions including anaphylaxis.
Archived from the original on Retrieved Jul 29, Archived from the original on 17 May Retrieved 9 June Dexamethasone is only recommended for use during pregnancy when there are no alternatives and benefit outweighs risk.
Archived from the original on 8 April Retrieved 22 April Drugs which have been taken by a large number of pregnant women and women of childbearing age without any proven increase in the frequency of malformations or other direct or indirect harmful effects on the fetus having been observed.
Drug discovery and medicinal chemistry for psychiatric disorders. Royal Society of Chemistry. Archived PDF from the original on 13 December Retrieved 8 December Archived PDF from the original on 22 December Retrieved 29 July Archived from the original on 31 March Retrieved 30 August Retrieved 13 October Dexamethasone is usually recommended because of its long-lasting effects up to 72 hours. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 9: N Engl J Med.
J Am Coll Surg. The Swedish Experience and Standpoint". A Handbook for Medical Officers". US Army Research Inst. Archived PDF from the original on Archived from the original on 12 December Retrieved 11 December Aspen Pharmacare Australia Pty Ltd.
Archived from the original on 28 January Archived from the original on 29 January Archived from the original on 13 December Archived from the original on 8 May Elks 14 November The Dictionary of Drugs: Chemical Data, Structures and Bibliographies. Archived from the original on 15 February Journal of the American Chemical Society. Badminton star suspended for 'apparent' doping" , BBC News , archived from the original on Glucocorticoids and antiglucocorticoids H Cortisone Cortisone acetate Cortodoxone cortexolone, deoxycortisol Desoxycortone deoxycortone, cortexone, deoxycorticosterone Desoxycortone esters Hydrocortisone cortisol Hydrocortisone esters Prebediolone acetate Pregnenolone Pregnenolone acetate Pregnenolone succinate.
Cortisol-like and related unsubstituted: Chloroprednisone Cloprednol Difluprednate Fludrocortisone Flugestone acetate flurogestone acetate Fluocinolone Fluorometholone Fluorometholone acetate Fluperolone Fluperolone acetate Fluprednisolone Fluprednisolone esters Loteprednol Medrysone Methylprednisolone Methylprednisolone esters Prednicarbate Prednisolone Prednisone Tixocortol Tixocortol pivalate Methasones and related substituted: Amcinonide Budesonide Ciclesonide Deflazacort Desonide Fluclorolone acetonide flucloronide Fludroxycortide flurandrenolone, flurandrenolide Flunisolide Fluocinolone acetonide Fluocinonide Formocortal fluoroformylone Halcinonide Triamcinolone acetonide Triamcinolone acetonide esters.
Aglepristone Ketoconazole Mifepristone Ulipristal acetate. Decongestants and other nasal preparations R Spaglumic acid histamine antagonists Levocabastine Antazoline Thonzylamine mast cell stabilizer some are also antihistamines Cromoglicic acid Nedocromil Azelastine Olopatadine Lodoxamide.
Drugs used for diseases of the ear S Betamethasone Dexamethasone Fluocinolone acetonide Hydrocortisone Prednisolone. Dectaflur Olaflur Sodium fluoride Sodium monofluorophosphate Stannous fluoride. Organo-heparinoid Sodium apolate Heparin Pentosan polysulfate.