AP Bio Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration and FermentationExplain the difference between fermentation and cellular respiration. Fermentation is the partial degradation of sugars or other organic fuel without oxygen while cellular respiration uses oxygen. Give the formula with anabolic pathways of biosynthesis for the catabolic degradation of glucose by cellular respiration. What is the difference between oxidation and reduction? Oxidation is the loss of electrons from one substance and reduction is the gain of electrons to another substance. What electron carrier is hydrogen transferred to low testosterone symptoms reddit
Pathways: anabolism and catabolism
All cells transform energy. They extract energy from their environment and use this energy to convert simple molecules into cellular components. The process of energy transduction takes place through a highly integrated network of chemical reactions called metabolism. Metabolism can be subdivided into catabolism reactions employed to extract energy from fuels and anabolism reactions that use this energy for biosynthesis.
The most valuable thermodynamic concept for understanding bioenergetics is free energy. A thermodynamically unfavorable reaction can be driven by a thermodynamically favorable one, which in many cases is the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis of ATP shifts the equilibrium of a coupled reaction by a factor of about 10 8. ATP, the universal currency of energy in biological systems, is an energy-rich molecule because it contains two phosphoanhydride bonds. ATP formation is coupled to the oxidation of carbon fuels, either directly or through the formation of ion gradients.
Photosynthetic organisms can use light to generate such gradients. ATP is consumed in muscle contraction and other motions of cells, in active transport, in signal transduction processes, and in biosyntheses.
There are three stages in the extraction of energy from foodstuffs by aerobic organisms. In the first stage, large molecules are broken down into smaller ones, such as amino acids, sugars, and fatty acids. In the second stage, these small molecules are degraded to a few simple units that have a pervasive role in metabolism. One of them is the acetyl unit of acetyl CoA , a carrier of activated acyl groups.
The third stage of metabolism is the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation, in which ATP is generated as electrons flow to O 2 , the ultimate electron acceptor, and fuels are completely oxidized to CO 2. Metabolism is characterized by common motifs. NADPH , which carries two electrons at a high potential, provides reducing power in the biosynthesis of cell components from more-oxidized precursors.
Most transfers of activated groups in metabolism are mediated by a recurring set of carriers. Moreover, key reaction types are used repeatedly in metabolic pathways. Metabolism is regulated in a variety of ways. The amounts of some critical enzymes are controlled by regulation of the rate of protein synthesis and degradation. In addition, the catalytic activities of many enzymes are regulated by allosteric interactions as in feedback inhibition and by covalent modification.
The movement of many substrates into cells and subcellular compartments also is controlled. Distinct pathways for biosynthesis and degradation contribute to metabolic regulation. A high-energy charge inhibits ATP-generating catabolic pathways, whereas it stimulates ATP-utilizing anabolic pathways. By agreement with the publisher, this book is accessible by the search feature, but cannot be browsed. Turn recording back on.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. W H Freeman; W H Freeman ; Metabolism Is Composed of Many Coupled, Interconnecting Reactions The process of energy transduction takes place through a highly integrated network of chemical reactions called metabolism. Key Terms phototroph chemotroph metabolism or intermediary metabolism catabolism anabolism amphibolic pathway coupled reaction phosphoryl transfer potential oxidative phosphorylation activated carrier oxidation-reduction reaction ligation reaction isomerization reaction group-transfer reaction hydrolytic reaction addition to or formation of double-bond reaction energy charge phosphorylation potential.