Anabolic Steroid AbuseAthletes, especially bodybuilders, anaolic anabolic steroid drugs to improve their strength and enhance their muscle growth and appearance. This study was conducted to determine the type what is dianabol cycle frequency of anabolic anabolic androgenic steroids statistics abuse in bodybuilder athletes in Kerman City. A confidential questionnaire which included demographic data age, educationsnabolic of abused anabolic drug and duration of drug abuse was completed by bodybuilder athletes, and the collected data were analyzed using Chi Square test. The frequency of anabolic steroid abuse was The mean period of bodybuilding activity was significantly higher in those used the anabolic drugs Anabolic androgenic steroids statistics frequency of anabolic steroids abuse was not related to education and age of the bodybuilder athletes. Bodybuilder athletes in Kerman city abuse anabolic steroids, androggenic the health care system should plan to inform them about anabolic steroid adverse effects.
Frequency of Anabolic Steroids Abuse in Bodybuilder Athletes in Kerman City
Athletes, especially bodybuilders, abuse anabolic steroid drugs to improve their strength and enhance their muscle growth and appearance. This study was conducted to determine the type and frequency of anabolic steroids abuse in bodybuilder athletes in Kerman City. A confidential questionnaire which included demographic data age, education , name of abused anabolic drug and duration of drug abuse was completed by bodybuilder athletes, and the collected data were analyzed using Chi Square test.
The frequency of anabolic steroid abuse was The mean period of bodybuilding activity was significantly higher in those used the anabolic drugs The frequency of anabolic steroids abuse was not related to education and age of the bodybuilder athletes. Bodybuilder athletes in Kerman city abuse anabolic steroids, and the health care system should plan to inform them about anabolic steroid adverse effects.
Seeking for ways to increase the speed and quality of bodily strength and activities has been a tendency for centuries. These ways include taking drugs.
Doping in sports is referred to intentional or unintentional use of drugs which falsely increase the power and strength of the competitioners and is considered an illegal and immoral act. Anabolic steroids have been used by athletes and non athletes for past four decades. In sports and bodybuilding, it is used to enhance strength or physique. Different studies show that therapeutic doses of anabolic steroids have no effect on muscle strength and athletes' performance, but the bodybuilders use 10 to 50 times of therapeutic doses.
This dosage increases the power and muscle strength in one hand, but it causes hormonal disorder and other complications on the other hand. Sudden cardiac death of two soccer players in the age of 18 and 24 years and a year-old bodybuilder following long-term use of anabolic steroids are examples of the cardiac complications of these drugs.
There have been many reports indicating anabolic steroid abuse in bodybuilding clubs in Kerman so that authorities called for educational sessions to provide information for many families and relatives of the bodybuilders who ask about side effects of these drugs. The present study aimed to determine the frequency of the anabolic steroids abuse among the bodybuilders in Kerman, Iran in the first phase and then based on the findings suggest interventions to inform both athletes and trainers about the complications and potential risks.
The aim of this cross sectional study was to estimate the frequency of anabolic steroids abuse among bodybuilders in Kerman City. First, a confidential questionnaire was prepared and a primary study was conducted to estimate the sample size. The results showed a 20 percent abuse rate. Considering the 15 percent frequency rate, 95 percent confidence interval CI and 5 percent error, the sample size was calculated and for more accuracy we increased it to bodybuilders in Kerman City.
The questionnaire was completed by bodybuilders of 15 randomly selected clubs after the permission of the Physical Education Organization. The clubs were selected randomly and the 15 bodybuilders were randomly selected from each club to complete the questionnaire.
The total number of completed questionnaire was The questionnaire was completed by bodybuilders before leaving the club. Personal data such as name was not included in the questionnaire, assuring confidentiality of data. Demographic questions included age, education and duration of exercise and the rest of questionnaire was related to the kind of anabolic steroids drugs they use, how they learned about anabolic steroids through friends, trainers or other methods , how they obtain the drugs and the duration of usage.
All the participants were cooperative. Participants with at least one month of continuous use were considered as anabolic steroid abusers. From bodybuilders who participated in this study 38 The participants were categorized into the following age groups: The lowest abuse rate was in over 30 years of age group and the highest rate was in the and years old groups. Also, there was no significant relation between mean age of the abusers The frequency of anabolic steroid abuse in different age groups of bodybuilders in Kerman city.
Participants were also divided into four groups according to their education level. These groups included non-educated, below high school diploma, diploma and Higher than high school diploma. Statistical analysis showed no significant relation between education level and the rate of anabolic steroids abuse Table 2.
The frequency of aanabolic steroid abuse in terms of education levels among bodybuilders in Kerman city. The findings on the period of abuse and duration of exercise were as follows; mean duration of bodybuilding exercise was The mean period of drug abuse in 38 bodybuilders who used anabolic steroids was The frequency of anabolic steroid abuse and duration of exercising in bodybuilders in Kerman city.
The findings showed that The most common pulmonary complication is the frequency of anabolic steroids abuse in Kerman City was The reason is not clearly known but it is possible that anabolic drugs are more known to Belgium bodybuilders or can be obtained easier.
Also, bodybuilders in Kerman mainly exercise for health purposes while in Belgium they may intend to participate in sports competitions. Anabolic steroids abuse is also common in weigh lifters, soccer players, high school students and even among girls. Williamson et al reported that 4. Another study reported that 6. The mean age of anabolic steroid abusers in this study was There is no report on the frequency of anabolic steroid abuse in Iran; however, it is possible that the real rate of anabolic steroid abuse in Kerman City is higher than what we found in this study False negative entries are an inevitable part of such studies and can only be reduced to some extent.
Mean period of exercise was Therefore, we may conclude that most abusers were long-term professionally exercising bodybuilders. Drugs were mostly obtained from black market Some abusers use several oral drugs along with injecting a high dosage of drugs with long-term effects.
The findings of this study showed that the main encouragement for anabolic steroid abuse comes from friends. This finding is in agreement with the results of other studies. Most studies show that majority of anabolic steroid abusers have no information about the side effects of these drugs and they mostly take them for muscle strength and good appearance. In addition to known complications of anabolic steroids including cardiac, endocrine, hepatic, pulmonary and central nervous system complications, these drugs can cause mood changes depression, aggressiveness, paranoid, and violence , suicide, homicide, and drug dependency.
Anabolic steroid abusers have also a tendency toward opiates. It can be concluded that anabolic steroid abuse act as a gate to opium addiction. In summary, the results of this study suggest the need for educational programs to inform athletes about the side effects of anabolic steroids. Also, health care system should provide more information about adverse effects of anabolic steroids to bodybuilders and athletes.
Athletes should be informed that sports are for increasing physical and mental health and it is both morally and socially illegal to use unethical means such as drugs to win a competition.
They should also be informed that the efficacy of anabolic steroids to enhance muscle strength and performance among sexually mature people is not approved by studies. Factors responsible for the tendency toward anabolic steroid abuse include lack of emotional relation with father, childhood problems, appearance disapproval, low self-esteem, bodybuilding, weight lifting and history of alcohol and tobacco use. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Addict Health v.
Received Jan 5; Accepted Apr 8. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Anabolic steroid, Bodybuilder athletes, Drug abuse. Introduction Seeking for ways to increase the speed and quality of bodily strength and activities has been a tendency for centuries. Methods The aim of this cross sectional study was to estimate the frequency of anabolic steroids abuse among bodybuilders in Kerman City. Results From bodybuilders who participated in this study 38 Table 1 The frequency of anabolic steroid abuse in different age groups of bodybuilders in Kerman city.
Age groups Year Total number of bodybuilders Number of drug abusers percentage of abusers in each group percentage of abusers in total Under 20 48 9 Open in a separate window. Table 2 The frequency of aanabolic steroid abuse in terms of education levels among bodybuilders in Kerman city. Drug abuse Education Total participants Number of drug abusers percentage of drug abusers Uneducated 14 0 0 Below Diploma 28 7 25 Diploma 23 Table 3 The frequency of anabolic steroid abuse and duration of exercising in bodybuilders in Kerman city.
Discussion The most common pulmonary complication is the frequency of anabolic steroids abuse in Kerman City was Acknowledgement Special thanks to Dr.
Haghdoost for their help and support. Use and abuse of androgens and anabolic steroids. Sudden cardiac death in a year-old bodybuilder using anabolic steroids. Anabolic-androgenic steroids and related substances. Curr Sports Med Rep. Estimated prevalence of anabolic steroid use among male high school seniors. Estimated consumption of anabolic steroids among athletes in Denmark.
Doping test report of 10th Asian Games in Seoul. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. Anabolic steroids in sport. Can J Sport Sci. Anabolic-androgenic steroid use disorders among a sample of Australian competitive and recreational users. The use of anabolic-androgenic steroids by Canadian students. Clin J Sport Med.
Androgenic-anabolic steroid use in adolescents. J Pediatr Health Care. Rate of anabolic-androgenic steroid use among students in junior high school.